1100 August 2 - Rufus (William II) was shot/assassinated in the eye and killed on hunting expedition in New Forest, Hampshire, by Walter Tyrrell or Tirel who fled country. Henri was also there and he galloped to seize the Royal treasures despite protests of its keepers.

Tyrrell later married into a family in Henri's favor

1100 Aug 5 - Henry I Beauclerc (Fine Scholar) is crowned by a mere bishop in London just ahead of William of Bretueil, Robert's supporter. Henri had committed perjury by taking throne since he had sworn allegiance to Robert.

Robert regains Normandy. Ranulf Flambard thrown into prison yet returns to Normandy to support Robert. Archbishop Anselm recalled from exile by Rufus, yet spends years in defiance to Henri.

1101 - Robert lands at Portsmouth and marches to London but few barons support him as promised and he takes two thousand pounds from Henri as renunciation of throne and returns to Normandy. Henri punishes the barons for disloyalty.

Henri's funds go to Welsh House of Montgomery rebellion, promises south Wales to Lorwerth ap Bleddyn forcing Montgomery to make peace, strips Robert, Arnulf and Roger of all their holdings in England, Henri struggled with church position and holdings

1102 - Vladislav I withdrew from the throne of Poland, his son, Boleslav III  took over

1105 - Normandy unhappy with Robert, Henri allies with Count of Flanders and king of France

1107 - Alexander I "The Fierce" became King of Scotland  

1106 Sept 28 - Robert surrenders in one-hour battle at Tinchebrai and spends life at Cardiff Castle in Wales. Henri increases feudal rights

Roger Bishop of Salisbury became first justiciar, organizing collection of royal revenue called Exchequer which met with sheriffs twice a year to collect funds. Roger was obscure Normandy priest who did Mass quickly for Henri so he could go hunting. Roger became Henri's steward, then chancellor, then justiciar.

1108 - Philip I King of France died, his son, Louis VI The Fat became King of France

1109 - Alfonso VI dies, his daughter's husband Raymond de Bourgogne's child Alfonso VII  becomes King of Castile and Leon in 1126

1110 Nov 11 - Henry I married Eadgyth Atherling , Princess of Scotland, daughter of Malcolm III King of Scotland and Margaret of Scotland

1114 Jan 7- Henri's daughter Matilda (12) married Heinrich V, Emperor of Holy Roman Empire (32), who died 1125

1118 May 1 - Mathilda Atherling died

1120 Nov 25 - Wreck of the White Ship kills Henri's only legitimate son William Atherling returning from battle of Bremule in Normandy.

1124 - David I of became King of Scotland, introduced Norman influence to Scotland

1125 - Matilda recalled to English court by her father

1127 May 22 - Matilda (23) marries Geoffrey V Count of Anjou le bon Plantagenet of Anjou (13) Le Mans, France to stabilize relations (Normans hated Anjou) and create Angevin alliance, Henri made barons swear allegiance to Matilda. Geoffrey the Fair, nicknamed Plantagenet on account of a sprig of broom (genet) he wore in his cap.

1130 - Henri had awarded his favorite nephew, Count Steven of Blois, estates on both sides of the Channel, making him one of the richest men in England and Normandy

1130 - Owain Gruffydd, son of Gruffydd Cynan, becomes last King of Gwynedd (until 1170)

1133 - Matilda and Geoffrey V Count of Anjouhave son, Henry II Curtmantle Plantagenet

1134 - Richard dies in prison in Cardiff, Wales 80 years old.

1135 - Gruffydd Rhys became Prince of Deheubarth

1135 summer - Geoffrey demanded Norman castles and Henri refused, creating war between them.

1135 Dec 1 - Henri died, Matilda not accepted by Witan but archbishop promised her that her son, Henry II would rule.

Henri's nephew Stephen by sister Adele, (William's daughter) and Etienne Henri II Le Sage (Stephen) Count of Blois took the throne, raised by Henry I.

David, King of Scotland and ninth son of Malcolm III, Prince of Cumbria and Earl of Northampton thru marriage and Matilda's uncle invaded England on her behalf at York, but was defeated at Northallerton in the "Battle of the Standard."

1136 - Treaty of Durham David retained Carlisle

1137 - Anaward Gruffydd became Prince of Deheubarth

1137 - Owain Gywnedd Gruffydd became King of Gwynedd

1137 - Ramiro II  dies, his daughter Petronilla married Raymond IV Berenger who now becomes King of Aragon

1137 - Louis VI The Fat died, his son, Loius VII becomes King of France and marries Eleanor of Aquitaine

1138 - Boleslav III died, his son, Vladislav II became the ruler of Poland. His daughter Ryska married Alfonso VII King  of Leon.

1139 - Second treaty, David gained all Northumbria.

Stephen alienated the church by persecuting Roger, Bishop in Salisbury

Two barons seized castles and Stephen didn't protest, granted huge tracts of land to Scottish kings to ease tension, agreed to a bad treaty with Geoffrey to ease Normandy.

1139 - Matilda landed at Arundel with large army, Geoffrey and half brother Robert, Earl of Gloucester

1141 - Stephen was captured at the battle of Lincoln when his Barons deserted him, only to be exchanged for Robert of Gloucester. Matilda declared Queen at Winchester, winning over Stephen's brother, Henry de Blois, the powerful Bishop of Winchester. Matilda alienated the masses with an arrogant attitude and failed to obtain coronation.

1143 - Cadell Gruffydd became Prince of Deheubarth

1144- Geoffrey became Duke of Normandy, Steven recognized Matilda's son Henry II, as heir to throne, not her. Stephen had quarreled with church who refused to recognize Stephen's son Eustace by Matilda of Boulogne as heir.

1144 - JEws in Norfolf are accused of using a Christian child, William's blood for Passover Seder and killing him.

1145 - Start of the Second Crusade

1148 - Matilda returned to Normandy forever, leaving son Henry II Curtmantle in England.

1150 - Henry II Curtmantle became Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou at father's death

1150ish - Somerled the Viking drove Scandinavians out of Argyll and Norwegian King Geoffrey out of Isle of Man.

1151 - Henry II acquired Normandy and Anjou when Geoffrey died

1152 May 18 - Henry II Curtmantle married Eleanor of Aquitaine (1154?), Duchess of Aquitane who was divorced from Louis VII after adultery with her uncle, Raymond of Poitou. Louis warred on Henry and Eleanor along with Henry's brother Geoffrey who wanted Anjou.

Henry II's kingdom was England, Anjou, Aquitane, Brittany, Normans in Wales, Ireland, Scotland

1153 - David I of Scotland died

1153 - Malcolm IV "The Maiden" became King of Scotland, 11 years old. Scotland held Northumberland, Cumberland and Westmoreland

1153 - Maredydd Gruffydd became Prince of Deheubarth

1153 - Eustace, Stephen's son died and Henry II came to England to claim throne through his mother. The Treaty of Wallingford stated that Stephen would rule until is death and then give the crown to Henry II.

1154 - Stephen's death, kingdom of Scotland had been extended to include the Modern English counties of Northumberland, Cumberland and Westmoreland, territories that were in future to be held by the kings of Scotland.

1154 Dec 19 - Henry II Curtmantle crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey, first Angevin king

Henry II made Anglo Saxon law common, opposed to Roman law, and continued grandfather's policy of limiting noble's powers.

1154 - Thomas Becket assigned as chancellor

1155 - Lord Rhys Gruffydd became Prince of Deheubarth

1157 - Treaty of Chester, Henry II forced Malcolm IV to give up northern territories of Northumbria and Cumbria, settled Scottish-English borders. Invaded Ireland (when?) and secured English land there.

1158 - Somerled becomes King of the Isles to 1164

1161 - Theodore died, Becket became Archbishop, opposing Henry on all matters.

1161 - Edward III the Confessor canonized 105 years after his death

1162 - Thomas Becket assigned Archbishop of Canterbury

1162 - Raymond IV Berenger dies, his son, Alfonso II becomes King of Aragon and Pamplona

1164 - Becket exiled to France

1164 - Rollo Rognavaldsson, son of Somerled, becomes Prince of the Isles.

1165 - William I "The Lion" became King of Scotland

1167 Dec 24 - John Lackland born in Beaumont Palace, Oxford

1169 Sept 10 - Matilda died in Rouen, partly buried in Fontervault Abbey, her "entrails" buried next to her father at Reading Abbey.

1169 - Richard de Clare Strongbow invaded Ireland in trade for the hand of Aoife of Leinster, daughter of Dermot MacMurrough (Daimait MacMurchada), King of Leinster, driven out by Turlough O'Connor.

1170 - Maelgwyn Owain became King of Gwynedd

1170 Dec 29 - Becket returned from exile, opposed coronation of Prince Henry, excommunicated bishops who coronated Henry's son. King Henry had four knights murder Becket while at vespers in his cathedral.

Europe was outraged, Canon law put into full affect. Henry's four sons went into rebellion, aided by the Queen who spent the remainder of her life in imprisonment. Richard, heir to Aquitane was closest to the Queen.

1174 - William I the Lion succeeded Malcolm IV and was captured at Alnwich, imprisoned at Falaise in Normandy by Henry II. Strategic castles of Edinburgh, Stirling, Roxburgh, Jedburgh and Berwick were to be held by England with English garrisons at Scottish expense. Ouch.

1175 - Dafydd Owain became King of Gwynedd

1183 - Prince Henry died

1184 - Viking Somerled was killed in battle by Malcolm IV of Scotland near Renfrew.

1185 - William Marshall, Lord of Ireland married Richard de Clovis' daughter and maintained Ireland for John Lackland

1184 - Richard refused his father's request to give Aquitane to John.

1189 July 4 - Richard I conquered his father, Henry II with help of Philip II Augustus King of France and his mother, Eleanor of Aquitane

1189 July 6- Henry II died, Henry was to inherit England, Normandy and Anjou; Richard the Lionhearted was to gain Poitiou and Britany was to go to Geoffrey, John Lackland to get pittance when married.

Richard released William of Scotland for 1000 marks of silver to fund Crusades.

1189 Aug 29 - John Lackland married Isabella, daughter of William, Earl of Gloucester (no issue)

1189 Sept 2 - Richard I The Lionhearted crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey. Gave John vast lands in attempt to appease his brother.

1190 - Rhodri Owain became King of Gwynedd

1190 - Massacre of Jews in York after third Crusade against Saladin invoked hatred towards Moslems, Third Crusade was to liberate the Holy Land from the Moslem Turks.

1190 - Richard fulfilled promise to his father and joined Third Crusade with Philip II of France

1191 - Richard I went on crusade to the Holy Land was captured in Germany and released for a ransom, returned to fighting King Philip II of France, died in battle in Aquitane. Philip fought alongside Richard during the crusades but turned when Richard rejected the marriage proposal of Philips' sister Alice in favor of Princess Berengaria (Berengia) of Navarre

1191 - Richard conquered Saladin in Cyprus on route to Jerusalem

Philip returned to France and plotted with Richard's brother, John Lackland

1191 May 12 - Richard the Lionhearted married Princess Berengia at Limasol, Cyprus

Richard heard of plot and started home, captured by Leopold V of Austria and held prisoner by Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor until Feb 1194

1194 - Richard returned home, seized back lands given to Philip of France, squashed John's rebellion who was forced to ask for a pardon and spent next years in Richard's shadow.

1194 - Richard develops the Exchequer of the Jews, a catalogue of all Jewish holdings in England in order that Jews can be heavily taxed.

1197 - Gruffydd Rhys became Prince of Deheubarth, his descendents rule as Lords of Cantref Mawr only

1198 - Richard finally conquered Philip at Gisors.

1199 Apr 6 - Richard died from wounds received during skirmish at the Castle of Chalus near Limousin

1199 May 27 - John Lackland crowned King of England, named Lackland as he was fourth son and could not use lands he was entitled to.

Installed first income tax to recover losses from Richard's wars and Magna Carta, the first bill of human rights.

John alienated Aquitane by divorcing Isabella of Gloucester for no heir and marrying the teen-aged daughter of the Count of Angouleme, already betrothed to Hugh VIII de Lusignan of Poitiou. Philip ordered John to appear, John refused, Philip withdrew all John's French holdings. John marched to Poitiou, freed Eleanor and killed Arthur of Britany. John returned to England to have only the Channel Islands. William The Lion of Scotland retook Northumberland and Cumberland, John had no support from the Pope Innocent, disputing the appointment of Stephen Langton after the death of Archbishop Hubert Walter in 1205.

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