1000 - Leif Eriksson led expedition to North America, landing in Vineland (Wineland)

1000 - Ragnald I Godfredsson became King of the Isle of Man

1002 - Nov: Ethelred ordered murder of all Danes in England to eliminate potential treachery. St. Brice's Day massacre, Sveyn's sister, Gunhilde, is among the vitims.

1003 - Sveyn I starts raids on England, devastating southern and central England, collects Danegelds from Ethelred.

1005 - Cynan Hywel died, Llewelyn Seisyllt claimed the throne of Gwynedd as great great to Anaward Rhodri 1005 - Edwin Einon became King of Deheubarth

1005 - Malcolm II MacKenneth, son of Kenneth becomes King of Alba and Scotland

1013 - Olaf defeated by Svein who leaves son, Canute, Knut Sveinsson, in control of armies and captures Oxford and Winchester.

Ethelred II and his son Edward III fled to Normandy, the home of his second wife, Emma

Svein  leads the full scale invasion of England, took the empty throne for five weeks (fourty days). Witan elects Canute king

1014 Feb 3 - Svein dies, Ethelred returns. Canute withdraws to Denmark to gather forces.

1015 - Canute returns and takes all of England except London

1015 - Vladmir the Saint Grand Prince of Kiev died, his son, Yaroslav I became Grand Prince of Kiev in 1019

1016 Apr 23 - Ethelred II the Unready dies on St George's Day in London, citizens of London appoint Ethelred's son by Alfgifu, Edmund II Ironsidewho wars against Canute in London.

Witan counsel meets in Southampton and elect Canute. Edmund brilliantly defeats Hardacanute at Oxford, Kent but Canute defeats Edmund at Ashingdon in Essex, shared territory with Edmund being King of Wessex and Canute King of Mercia.

1016 - Eadulf I, son of Waltheof becomes Earl of Northumbria

1016 Nov - Edmund II Ironside dies

1017 - Hardacanute took full control, his kingdom including Wessex, East Anglia, Mercia, Northumbria and 7 smaller districts. He exile's Edmund's son, Edward Atheling

Hardacanute had son Harald Harefoot by mistress Elfgifu, married Ethelred's widow and has Hardacanute. Accepted English law, first Viking leader to become ordained king. Ethelred's and Edmund's sons flee.

Canute became King of England, Norway, Denmark, rich and powerful. Hardicanute was King of Denmark

Gave large shire control to Leofric of Mercia (Lady Godiva's husband) Siward of Northumbria and Godwine of Wessix.

1018 - Malcolm II MacKenneth defeated Britons in Lothian, North England. Celtic British King Strathclyde, died with no heir, lands went to Malcolm's grandson Duncan.

1018 - Llewelyn Seisyllt claimed became King of Deheubarth

1019 - Ealdred II, Aldred of Bernicia, son of Uchtred, becomes King of Northumbria to 1038

1019 - Yaroslav I became the Grand ruler of Russia, his daughter, Anne, married Henry I, King of France

1023 - Rhydderch Lestyn became King of Deheubarth

1024 - Beginning of the Salian dynasty of the HRE (to 1125)
Henry II died, Conrad II The Salic became the first Franconian Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire

1027 - Canute's pilgrimage to Rome, highly religious, buried at Winchester

1028 - William the Conqueror born, illegitimate son, direct ancestor of Vikings at Seine River.

1030 - Iago Idwal became King of Powys

1031 - Robert II the Pious dies, his son Henry I becomes King of France

1033 - Hywel Edwin became King of Deheubarth

1034 - Duncan I MacCrinan "The Gracious", son of ethoc, grandson of Malcolm II becomes King of Scotland, expands lands to Pict-land, Scotland, Lothian, Cumbria and Strathclyde, the Shetlands, Orkneys and the Western Isles, which were held by the Scandinavians. Still no distinct line between Scotland and England.

1035 - Canute dies, leaves all to Hardacanute who could not come to England from Denmark without leaving Magnus of Norway a free hand in Scandinavia. Witan (King's council) decided with Earl Godwine of Wessex in control. Harold Harefoot, Canute's illegitimate lost over Hardacanute whose mother, Emma, Ethelred's wife and sister to Richard Sans Peur Duke of Normandy, held Wessex at Winchester for Hardacanute. Prince Alfred, Ethelred's younger son was captured and blinded by Godwine in fear of losing Wessex. Alfred remained in monastery.

1035 - Robert I Duke of Normandy dies in Bithynia, leaving Duchy of Normandy to William aged 7, illegitimate son by Herleva of Falasie, barons ruled in his stead.

Civil service began here, secretaries to account for taxes, etc.

1035 - Fernando I becomes King of Navarre when his father Sancho Garcie III died, then King of Castile and takes Leon in 1065. His brother Ramiro I de Aragon  becomes King of Aragon

1036 - Murder of Edward the Confessor's brother, Alfred

1037 - Harold Harefoot was Regent and elected King in England but died in 1040.

1037 - Archbishop Robert I of Rouen, France, dies; succeeded by William's uncle, Mauger

1038 - Eadulf II, son of Uchtred becomes last Earl of Northumbria to 1041

1038 - Casimir I "The Restorer" became ruler of Poland

1039 - Conrad II died, his son, Henry III The Black became Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire

1039 - Gruffydd Llewelyn, son of Llewelyn Seisyllt, became King of Gwynedd and Powys

Won the battle of Rhyd-y-Groes near Welshpool against Mercians where he slew Edwin, brother of Earl Leofric of Mercia, (Godiva's husband).

Turned to the south attacking Hywel Edwin of Deheubarth.

1040 - Hardacanute left Denmark, arrived in Wessex to take crown only to find Harold Harefoot dead.

Imposed a tax to pay for the unnecessary trip.

1040 Aug 14 - Duncan I killed at Bothganowan, Elgin, Moray, Scotland by Macbeth who was killed by Malcolm III who married English Princess Margaret of Scotland , daughter of Edward Atherling who fled England to avoid the Normans. Margaret brought English church to Scotland.

1042 June - Hardacanute, basically disliked and considered incompetent, died after one year reign, choking at a drinking party/wedding feast. Godwin of Essex took over.

Prince Edward III the Confessor (Ethelred's son and Hardacanute's half brother) returned to Winchester from Normandy where he grew up at Canute's call, proclaimed king.

1043 - William's coronation (???)

1044 - Harold Godwinsson II, son of Godwine became Earl of East Anglia.

1044 - Hywel Edwin of Deheubarthwas killed at battle at estuary of river Towry despite his use of Vikings. Gruffydd Llewelyn became King of Deheubarth

Gruffydd then challenged by Gruffydd Rhydderch (descendant of Rhodri Mawr), battled 2 years.

1045 - Wessex and Mercia blended when Edward III married Edith, Godwine's daughter by Gytha Thorgilsson. Edward controlled by Godwin but Edward influenced by Normans where he grew up. Norman archbishop assigned.

Godwin and son Harold led anti-Norman faction. Edward took revenge on Godwin by confining Edith to the Wherwell monastery

Magnus of Norway threatens to invade England

Harold Godwinsson married Edith, unk parents, inherited Earldom of Wessex and control of Edward

Scandinavian names throughout England, --by, --thrope, --waite.

Tosnig, son of Godwine becomes Earl of Northumbria

While Saxons broke connection with homeland, Scandinavians did not. England was considered Scandinavian under Canute's rule, opening England to their invasion.

Harold was captured by WTC, Edwards' cousin and Duke of Normandy, made to swear allegiance to William,

1046 - Revolt of the western vicomtes and Guy of Burgundy in Normandy. William defended by King Henry

1046 - Power struggle between Edward who was loyal to Normans and Godwine. Edward exiled Swein and Godwine and sons, one with Swein and Godwine in Bruges, the other to Vikings in Dublin. Edward appointed Norman bishop Robert Champart, confined Edith to Wherwell monastery. Supposedly promised throne to William I.

1047 - Hundred's of Gruffydd soldiers killed by treachery from Rhydderch's brothers.

Gruffydd Llewelyn's revenge was to lay Dyfed and Seisyllwg to waste with alliance to new Earl Svein of Mercia in order to have Saxon support of his claim to Deheubarth. (?) Did not succeed.

Turned to eastern marches and land beyond Offa's Dyke.

Allied with Alfgar III, son of Earl Leofric of Mercia who was in dispute with Godwine of Wessex, father of Svein now in exile in Byzantium.

Gruffydd Llewelyn married Eadgyth at 15, daughter of Alfgar, who would later marry Harold II.

1047 - Gruffydd Rhyddrech became King of Deheubarth

1047 - William took control of Normandy away from rebelling barons with help from Henry I King of France.

William present at proclamation of the Truce of God in Normandy at church council in Caen

1048 - Harold Hardrada, uncle of Magnus (?) became King of Norway.

1049 - William recaptures Brionne

1051 - William marries Mathilda, daughter of Baldwin Count of Flanders. About the time of a rebellion by Earl Godwine against Edward the Confessor, William is promised succession to the English throne

Warfare between William and Geoffrey, Count of Anjou, round Domfront and Alencon

1051 - Edward assigns a Norman, Robert Champart, the Bishop of London, to Archbishop of Canterbury. Godwin led unsuccessful revolt and was banished.

1052 - Edward's cousin (Robert I Duke of Normandy) was the father of Duke William, later William the Conqueror. Edward and Edith had no issue, Edward kept a vow of chastity but became impotent in hunting accident, wanted Normans to take over crown, especially William I.

1052 - Beginning of a series of raids that gained Gruffydd and Alfgar March territories from the Saxons. Saxon patrolled south to Westbury in Gloucestershire.

1053 - Godwine returned and Edward avoided civil war by returning Godwine and sons to favorable positions and banished Norman bishops. Expulsion of many Normans from England, Earl Godwine and sons are returned land lost due to rebellion

1053 - Godwine died Easter morning, his son Harold Godwinsson became Earl of Wessex who fought Gruffydd of Wales. Harold's wife Ealdgyth later married Gruffydd Llewelyn .

1055 - Hereford sacked and burnt. Rhydderch killed by Gruffydd who claimed Deheubarth.

Gruffydd Llewelyn became King of Deheubarth again

1056 -  Henry III died, his son, Henry IV became Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire at age 6, to 1106

1057- Edward Atheling (Edmund Ironside's son) returned with his small children (dtr is Margaret of Scotland) after he was smuggled out of England to Hungary as a baby to avoid Canute, but dies within days

1057 - English recognized Gruffydd Llewelyn's right to all of Wales, sought treaty with Gruffydd.

Negoiations led by Harold Godwinson and Earl Leofric resulted in Gruffydd swearing fealty to King Edward the Confessor.

1058 - Ealdgyth, daughter of Alfgar and Elfgifu marries Gruffydd Llewelyn

1058 - Casimir I died, his son, Vladislav I  became ruler of Poland

1060 - King Henry I of France, grandson of Hughes Capet, dies; succeeded by Philip I

1062 - Alfgar III died, leaving Gruffydd vulnerable. Harold Godwinson led surprise attack at Rhuddlan, destroying Gruffydd's fleet, Gruffydd escaped.

1063 - Harold Godwinson and brother Tosnig combined in attack, forcing Wales into submission. Harold demanded tributes and hostages, that the Welsh abandon Gruffydd. His own men turned on him and killed him, slain by Cynan Iago (Iago Idwal Meurig's son) August 1063. His head was sent to Harold as a sign of the victory.

1063 - Bleddyn Cynfyn and Rhiwallon Cynfyn, half brothers to Gruffydd Llewelyn became King of Gwynedd, installed by Edward the Confessor as vassal kings. They remained sympathetic to certain Mercia families now under seige from the Normans.

1063 - Harold leads brilliant battle against Welsh with brother Tostig, brings them under control, becomes general.

1064 - Harold visits Normandy as emissary for Edward, swearing loyalty to William Duke of Normandy, refusing any rights to the crown of England.

1064 -  Ramiro I dies, his son, Sancho Ramirez I becomes King of Aragon, then King of Navarre in 1076 when his cousin, Sancho IV dies

Harold marries Ealdgyth, daughter of Alfgar III and Elfgifu.

1065 - Edward built Westminster Abbey. Harold II's brother, Tostig banished from Northumbria, joined Harold Hardrada in Norway.

1065 - Fernando I dies, his son, Alfonso VI  becomes King of Castile and Leon

1066 - Edward dies Jan 5, names Harold successor instead of grandson, Edward Atherling. Harold II elected by Witan and coronated Jan 6

1066 Apr - Haleys' comet seen, recorded in China 13 centuries before.

1066 Aug - William prevented from crossing Channel due to weather

1066 Aug 14 - Battle of Senlac

1066 Sep 25 - Tosnig and Harald of Norway tried and failed to take Denmark by crossing North Sea to land in Yorkshire in summer of 1066, defeated and killed by King Harold II at Stamford Bridge at the Channel

1066 Sept 28 - William of Normandy lands unopposed in southern Pevensey

1066 Oct 5 - Harold II and troops reach London to fight William

1066 Oct 14 - King Harold loses in Battle of Hastings with weary troops. Harold supposedly was killed by Norman arrow in the eye. The last English king to be killed by foreign invader.

Bayeux Tapestry woven.

William marches to London where Edgar Atherling has taken Harold's place in absence.

1066 Christmas Day - William the Conqueror, recognized by Witan, crowned King of England

Saxon Earldoms of Wessex, Mercia, Northumbria and other ancient kingdoms were abolished forever. English language became commoners' language, new comers spoke French. William's insistence that the prime duty of any man holding land from the king was to produce on demand a set quota of mounted knights. Uprisings settled by 1072.

1070 - Bleddyn sole ruler of Gwynedd and Powys at Battle of Mechain where Gruffydd's sons Maredydd and Idwal fell in their late teens.

1071 - Malcolm forced by William to pay homage at Abernethy.

1072 - Rhys Owain became King of Deheubarth

1072 - British uprisings finally stopped as William confiscated rebels properties and banished them to Normandy and destroyed their food in the north at York.

William allows Britons their own way of life with a new feudal system, independence in exchange for money and military service. Ealdormen of the Shire became Shire Reeve or Sheriff with increased responsibilities.

William assigns an Italian, Lanfranc to Archbishop of Canterbury who reorganized the church setting up separate courts to deal with Canon law.

William's victory was supported by papal money but he would not allow the church to dictate policy in Normandy or England.

1073 - The Normans under Robert of Rhuddlan led surprise attack, weakening Bleddyn

1075 - Bleddyn Cynfyn murdered at Powis Castle betrayed by Rhys Owain of Deheubarth.

1075 - Trahern Caradog, son of Caradog Gwen, prince in southern Powys married Nest Verch Gruffydd, daughter of Gruffydd Llewelyn and becomes King of Gwynedd, challenged by many, killed in battle

1076 - Synod of Worms, Henry IV vs Pope Gregory, German bishops turn against Gregory who excommunicates Henry. Rudolph of Swabia ends up Emperor of HRE

1078 - Rhys Tewdwr became last King of Deheubarth, under English rule 1093 to 1135

1080 - William left Scotland alone

1081 - Gruffydd Cynan, fifth cousin to Bleddyn, becomes King of Gwynedd. Born in Ireland while in exile with his father, Cynan Gruffydd

1082 - Odo de Bayeux, half brother to William arrested (for?)imprisoned at Rouen in 1086, pardoned by William I on his death bed.

1083 - Mathilda died Nov 2

1084 - Henry IV invades Apulia where Robert Guiscard expells him back and sacks Rome.

1085 -(25th May) Canute IV of Denmark prepares to invade England

(Dec) William holds Christmas Court at Gloucester, where the Doomsday Book is planned. Unique "Domesday Book" (the book of unalterable judgments), was an attempt to provide the king with every penny to which he was legally entitled. It worked only too well, reckoning the wealth of England "down to the last pig."

1086 - July, Murder of Cnut/Canute IV

William crosses to Normandy

1087 - (9th Sept) William the Conqueror dies early in the morning at Saint-Gervais near Rouen from wounds received during a siege on a town called Mantes. He gives :
The English crown to son, William II Rufus The Red, (disliked because of his cruelty)
Reluctantly granted Normandy to Robert the eldest
Five thousand pounds sterling to Henry I Beauclerc.

Norman barons owning land in both Normandy and England in conflict to declare sides finally sided with Robert who failed to show, Rufus quelled the rebellion, becomes King.

1088 - Rebellion led by Bishop Odo of Bayeux, an old foe of Lanfranc who crowned Rufus to place Robert on throne. Robert gave up, the bishop fled to Europe and when Lanfranc died, Rufus appointed Ranulf Flambard treasurer and counselor who turned extortionist. Rufus took advance of church funds, taxed heavily to make up for Robert's costs, took advantage of feudal law, had no respect for church.

1090- Rufus invaded Robert in Normandy aided by Philip of France

Sicily conquered by Normans

1092 - Malcolm III of Scotland advanced, forcing Rufus back to England

1093- Malcolm was killed at Malcolm's Cross by Earl Mowbray, Northumberland, wife Margaret died a few days later.

Donaldbane of Scotland allied with Magnus of Norway

1093 - Donald II became King of Scotland

1094 - Duncan II became King of Scotland

1094 - Donald II and Edward became joint Kings of Scotland

1094 - Sancho Ramirez I dies, his son Ramiro II becomes King of Aragon

1096 - Duke Robert of Normandy honored Pope's request to free path to Holy Land for pilgrims, mortgaged Normandy to Rufus for 10,000 marks and departed for the Holy Lands. Rufus subdued Donaldbane in Scotland and sold Shrewsbury to Norman barons to subdue Welsh and began campaign to add France to his kingdom.

1095 William II Rufus sent troops into Wales as did Henri I

1097 - Edgar became King of Scotland

1098 - Agreement between Norwegian Magnus Barefoot and Scottish King Edgar that Magnus could control islands west of Scotland where he could take a boat with its scudder in place.

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