1200 - Llywelyn Fawr Iorweth "The Great" became King of Gwynedd

1200's - HRE conquered Prussia, south Italy and Sicily

1200? - Alexander II (Italy?) took Argyll, Alexander III defeated Haakon King of Norway at Largs causing Magnus King of Man to submit to Alexander

1220 Aug 24 - John Lackland married Isabel, daughter of Aymer Taillefer, Count of Angouleme

1202 - William the Lion of Scotland took Caithness, Sutherland and Ross from Scandinavian control

Interdict of 1208, and for the next five years, English priests were forbidden from administering the sacraments, even from burying the dead. Most of the bishops left the country.

1202 - Eleanor of Aquitaine died Fontevraud Abbey, Maine-et-Loire, France

1205 - John lost remaining French possessions and returned to England

1207 - Geoffrey fled England for church taxes

1209 - Innocent excommunicated John, John forced to accept Langton

1210 - Second visit to Ireland in attempt to control independent lords, was able to usurp Walter and Hugh De Lacy.

1212 - John tried to recover French losses, demanding support from barons who refused.

John fought against French King Philip's son, Prince Louis

1213 - John abandoned Ireland to the Pope

1214 - Alexander II became King of Scotland

1215 - discontent barons took London

1216 June - John Lackland reluctantly signed the Magna Carts at Runnymede, the forerunner to the constitution, a compromise between John and the barons drawn up by Langton with feudal lords enforcing rights with a contract with the king.

1 - Church was free to make ecclesiastic appointments.

2 - Larger-than-normal amounts of money could only be collected with the consent of the king's feudal tenants.

3 - No freeman was to be punished except within the context of common law

1216 Oct 18 - John Lackland died at Newark Castle.

1216 Oct 28 - Henry III , John Lackland's son was crowned King of England, 9 years old has Earl of Pembroke, William Marshall as guardian, lost Poitou (and Aquitane?)

London was in control of French Dauphin Louis, north in control of rebel barons

Knights developed, wanted charter reactivated, civil war over papal oaths.

Simon de Montfort, leader of reformation group with democratic ideas, started parliament.

1217 - Marshall rallied barons who expelled the Dauphin from London

Jews in England are forced to wear yellow badges in the form of two stone tablets for identification.

1219 - William Marshall died, Hugh De Burgh, the last of the justiciars oversaw Henry until he was 25

1236 Jan 14 - Henry III married Eleanor, daughter of Raymond Berenger, Count of Provence

1240 - Dafydd Lllywelyn became King of Gwynedd

1246 - Llywelyn II Gruffydd "The Last" became King of Gwynedd

1249 - Alexander III became King of Scotland

1253 - Henry III forbids Jews to live in cities without a pre-existing  Jewish community.

1254 Oct 1 - Eleanor, daughter of Ferdinand III, King of Castile at Las Heulgas, Castile

1255 - Jews are accused of killing another Christian boy for his blood, 100 Jews are executed. Hugh of Lincoln, was chasing a ball when he fell and drowned in a Jewish cesspool. His body was found 26 days later, when a large Jewish congregation was gathered in Lincoln.

1258 - Henry levied taxes to pay for wars with Wales and France then Sicily, barons rebelled, Henry forced to agree to the Provisions of Oxford, allowing barons to be in control with a council of fifteen men

1264 - Henry denied the Provision of Oxford creating another outbreak

1264 - Battle of Lewes in Sussex: Simon de Montfort took Henry's men headed by his son, Edward

Simon gathered a council of nine to rule England and knights from each shire to create first Parliament

1265 - Montfort lost support of Earl of Gloucester and Edward escaped from Montfort.

1265 - Edward defeated Simon who died at Evesham and ruled for his father

1265 - England started dealing with Italian bankers, minimizing the need for Jewish bankers.

Crusades with Louis IX of France (?)

1266 - Treaty of Perth Isle of Man and Western Isles to Scotland

1272 - Henry III died

1274 Aug 19 - Edward Plantagenet crowned Edward I Longshanks King of England at Westminster Abbey, "The Hammerer of Scots"

1274 - Robert Bruce Earl of Carrick, both Norman and Celtic born at Turnberry Castle, Ayrshire.

1275 - Edward I issued the Jewish Affairs Bill, forbidding the Jews of England to loan money on interest. They were allowed to earn a living as tradesmen or farmers, but were ineligible for membership in tradesmen guilds or tenure as a farmer.

1277 - Edward started plans to subdue Llewelyn Gruffydd, Prince of Wales

1278 - Statute of Gloucester limited private expansion holdings, made them subject to the crown

1282 - Owain Goch Gruffydd became King of Gwynedd

1282 - Dafydd Gruffydd became King of Gwynedd, executed for treason

1282 - Llewelyn Gruffydd's death, Wales divided into shire, English civil law introduced

1284 - Edward II born at Caernafon Castle

1286 - Alexander III died when his horse fell of a cliff, only heir was granddaughter Margaret, daughter of King of Norway and Maid of Norway. She was to marry Edward Longshank's son, Edward II, on but died on route, leaving Scotland without an heir. Edward claimed rights to lead Scotland.

1290 July 18 - Edward I expelled the Jews from England, making England the first European country to do so. Most went to France and Germany. They were permitted to return under Oliver Cromwell who took office in 1649.

1292 - John Balliol became King of Scotland

Edward I supported John Bolloil opposed to Bruce and proclaimed John heir to Scotland but made unreasonable demands. John created treaty with France. Bruce and Scottish lords paid homage to Edward I, were punished by John seizing lands and giving them to brother-in-law John Comyn.

1296 - Edward I defeated John Bolloil at Dunbar who surrendered his throne to Edward I at Brechin July 10th. Edward took the stone of Scone, the Scottish coronation stone

1297 - Wallace lead national rebellion at Sterling Bridge and annihilated English army commanded by Edward I Viceroy. Crossbows were successfully used.

1298 - Wallace lost to English at Falkirk

1299 - Edward I married Margaret, daughter of Philip III, King of France at Canterbury Cathedral

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