900 BC Etruscans possibly from Lydia appeared, possibly at the decline of the Hittitie Empire 1200 BC
Etruscans settled north of the Tiber in Etruria, had Greek vases
Extended into Po Valley, Latium and Campania
??? Celtic invaders into the Po Valley, separated their northern settlements
760 Greeks moved to Naples and Sicily, were prevented from moving west or south by Phoenicians and Etruscans
753 Rome founded, traditionally by Romulus
Legend has it he was a descendant of fugitives of the Trojan War, the God of Mars and Aphrodite the Goddess of Venus
Legend Kings are Romulus, Pompolius, Hostilius and Marcius (753 to 616)
Government was elective, not hereditary
Two classes were partricians (senate) & plebeians (commoners)
509 Rome republic was founded
493 Rome allied with Latin League, a federation of cities in Latium for war assistance, abandoned 338
390 Rome was sacked by the Gauls (Celts) under Brennus for seven months
367 Four wars against the Gauls to 334
300 Etruscans absorbed by Rome who adopted their togas, mythology and religions
290 Rome conquered Samnites, mountain people south of Rome
287 Roman Plebeian's won right to hold office and legal equality
275 Rome conquers Greek colony of Tarentum in south Italy, now controls most of Italy
264 First Punic War to 241 - Rome and Carthage fight over control of Med Sea, Rome takes Sicily
First Roman gladiator games
219 Second Punic Wars to 201
218 Hannibal of Carthage crosses Alps, reaches Rome 211
215 First Macedonian War: Philip of Macedonia with Hannibal and Carthagininas against Rome
148 Fourth Macedonian War: Macedonia becomes a Roman provence
140 Rome takes Macedonia, Greece, Anatolia, Balearic Islands and southern France
133 Roman ally King Attalus III of Pergamum (now Turkey) died, leaves kingdom to Rome
100 Julius Caesar invades Britain
71 Spartacus leads slave revolts against Romans, Romans takes Seleucid empire
63 Roman general Pompey conquers Jerusalem
60 Pompey takes Turkey, Syria, Phoenicia, Palestine (date?) Senate refuses to recognize
Caesar, Pompey and Marcus Crassus form political alliance First Triumvirate
58 Crassus dies in battle, Rome tries to divide Caesar and Pompey
55 Caesar invades what is now British Isles, started in 54 and 55
54 Caesar's second expedition, he stormed Belgic hill fort and defeated King Cassivellanus near Canterbury, crossed the Thames near London, obtained submission form southern chieftains and returned to Rome
51 Senate fears Caesar, asks him to resign, he refuses
50 Caesar conquers Gaul and west of Rhine, crosses Rubicon to fight Pompey
49 Caesar invades Italy, defeats Pompey in civil war
48 Ptolemy XII killed in battle, Caesar forces to restore Cleopatra to the Egyptian throne
45 Caesar sole Roman leader
44 Caesar murdered by Roman leaders wanting return of Roman Republic
43 Casesar's adopted son Octavian form second Triumvirate with Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus, defeated Caesar's enemies. Octavian and Antony fight for Rome, push Lepidus aside
31 Octavian, Caesar's nephew Mark Antony and Cleopatra at Battle of Actium
Mark Antony commits suicide
30 Egypt becomes Roman province
Cleopatra committed suicide
30 Octavian establishes Roman empire, takes role of the Emperor Augustus meaning "exhalted" preferred "first citizen" to "Emperor." Ruled to 14 AD
27 Imperator Caesar Octavianus aka Augustus established his Roman govt Jan 23
14 Tiberus Claudius Nero took over Rome at Augustus' death

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