Continued from Israel and Judah
582 BC Third deportation of Jews to Babylon by Chaldeans but actually were treated quite well.
Judah Jews lived amongst Edomites and Samaritans and were poor
Deuteronomy was brought up to date, religion and literature flourished
539 Babylon was taken by Cyrus of Persia who released the Jews who returned to Judah.
520 Rebuilding of Solomon's temple at Prophet Haggai's insistance (finished Mar 10, 515)
504 Ekron, Philistine burns to the ground, Samuel of the bible's city
445 Nehermiah became governor of Jerusalem, rebuilt walls despite protests from Sanbalat governor of Samaria and Tobiah, governor of Ammon
332 Alexander the Great conquered Israel and Judah
323 Ptolemy of Israel ruled to198
198 Seleucids ruled
168 Jews rebelled against Antiochus IV who declared Judaism illegal
164 Jews obtained religious freedom
63 Roman General Pompey placed Israel under Roman rule
37 Herod The Great appointed King of Judea by Roman Senate, began rebuilding the temple in Jerusalem
??? Jesus of Nazareth born
4 BC Herod died. His sons take over:
Archelaus rules Judea and Samaria
Antipas in Galilee and Peraea
Philip in Batanea
66 Jewish revolt against the Romans
70 AD Jerusalem and the second temple was destroyed under Roman rule of Titus, Jews forbidden to enter city and moved their learning centers to Galilee and Babylonia where the first two chapters of the Talmud were written
73 Last stand of Jews at Masada.
132-135 Bar Kokhba uprising against Rome
135 Romans under Emperor Hadrian drive Jews from Jerusalem, renaming the area Palaestina and Jerusalem was named Colonia Aelia Capitolina. The Jews formed a second Jewish Diaspora, but continued to exist in Galilee, the northernmost part of Palestine. Christianity was still a forbidden religion.
abt 210 Codification of Jewish oral law (Mishnah) completed.
313 The Roman emperor Constantin adopts Christianity and founds the Byzantine Empire. Christianity would soon become the Empire's official religion. By the end of the century the Land of Israel becomes a predominantly Christian country. Jews were forbidden to enter Jerusalem excepting one day a year  (Tisha b'Av - ninth of Av) to mourn the destruction of the temple.
390 Commentary on the Mishnah (Jerusalem Talmud) completed.
400's Empress Eudocia settled in Jerusalem, she had the city's boundary extended southward and a wall built that encompassed Mount Zion and the Siloam Pool. Jerusalem was made a patriarchate, joining Rome, Constantinople, Antioch and Alexandria.
614 Jerusalem invaded by Persia, aided by Jews who hoped for deliverance. Thousands of inhabitants were massacred. Many churches, including the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, were destroyed and others were damaged. The sacred cross upon which Jesus was crucified was looted. For their cooperation, Jews were allowed administration.
620/9 Emperor Heraclius and the Byzantine army retook Jerusalem and expelled the Jews, returning the cross to it's rightful place.
632 Death of the prophet Muhammad
636 Jerusalem invaded by Arabs without major bloodshed, Patriarch Sophronios surrendered the city to Omar. Islamic caliphs ruled first from Damascus, then from Baghdad and Egypt. Jewish settlement in Jerusalem resumed, granted customary status of protected non-Muslims, which safeguarded their lives, property and freedom of worship in return for payment of special poll and land taxes.
638 Jerusalem was conquered by the Caliph Umar (Omar) who gave his protection to its inhabitants
691 On site of First and Second Temples in Jerusalem, Dome of the Rock built by Caliph Abd el-Malik
717 The Omayyad Dynasty was wiped out and succeeded by the Abbasids, transferred their capital from nearby Damascus to Baghdad and imposed a fanatical regime.  Restrictions against non-Muslims affected the Jews' public conduct as well as their religious observances and legal status. Heavy taxes on agricultural land compelled many to move from rural areas to towns, increasing discrimination forced others to leave the country.
1071 Jerusalem was conquered by the Seljuk Turks
Jerusalem was conquered by Fatimid rulers of Egypt
1098 Fatimid rulers of Egypt made an alliance with the crusaders and captured Jerusalem, Jaffa and other parts of Palestine.
1099 July 15: Crusaders invaded Palestine after a 5 week seige, captured Jaffa and Jerusalem, slaughtered many Jewish and Muslim defenders and forbade Jews to live in Jerusalem. See Crusades
1187 Muslim ruler Saladin conquered Jerusalem
1260/1291 Mamelukes, Muslem Arab warriors from Egypt, drive Crusaders out of the Land of Israel and established an empire that in time included the area of Palestine. Arab-speaking Muslims made up most of Palestine's population.The crusaders left Palestine for good when the Muslims captured Acre, but to protect themselves from ongoing raids the Turks depopulated and impoverished the coast of Palestine for hundreds of years.
1517 The Ottoman Empire defeated the Mamelukes, Palestine became part of the Ottoman Empire, ruled from Istanbul. The Turkish Sultan invited Jews fleeing the Spanish Catholic inquisition to settle in the Turkish empire, including several cities in Palestine. Palestine flourishes under Suleiman the Magnificent's rule with foreign influences and sophistications appearing all over.
1564 Code of Jewish law (Shulhan Arukh) published, the study of Kabbalah (Jewish mysticism) flourished.
1566 Suleiman the Magnificent dies.
1798 The war with Napoleon and subsequent misadministration by Egyptian and Ottoman rulers, reduced the population of Palestine. Arabs and Jews fled to safer and more prosperous lands.
Subsequent reorganization and opening of the Turkish Empire to foreigners restored some order. They also allowed the beginnings of Jewish settlement under various Zionist and proto-Zionist movements. Both Arab and Jewish population increased.
1860 First neighborhood, Mishkenot Sha'ananim, built outside Jerusalem's walls
1880 24,000 Jews were living in Palestine, out of a population of about 400,000. The ttoman government imposed severe restrictions on Jewish immigration and land purchase, evaded in by Jews seeking to colonize Palestine.
1882 First Aliya (large-scale immigration), mainly from Russia; four more waves of immigration will follow till 1948
1897 First Zionist Congress convened by Theodor Herzl in Basel, Switzerland; Zionist Organization founded.
1909 First kibbutz, Degania, and first modern all-Jewish city, Tel Aviv, founded.
1917 Dec 9: Jerusalem surrendered to the British forces. 400 years of Ottoman rule ended by British conquest; British Foreign Minister Balfour pledges support for establishment of a "Jewish national home in Palestine".
1920 July: Mandate civil administration took over from the military. For the first time since Crusader days Jerusalem was again the capital of the whole country.
1922 July: League of Nations entrusted Great Britain with the Mandate for Palestine, facilitate the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine-Eretz Israel. Council of the League of Nations and Great Britain decided this would not apply to the area east of the Jordan River, which constituted three fourths of the territory included in the Mandate and eventually became the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
1939-45 WWII
1947 UN proposes the establishment of Arab and Jewish states
1948 May 14 - End of British Mandate, State of Israel proclaimed
Continued Israel

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