|5000 BC||Tell Halaf pottery in northern Mesopotamia|
|4500||Al Ubaid period: painted pottery and simple agriculture, followed by the Uruk period of copper and writing|
|3000's||Jamdat Nasr (Early Bronze Age) period: gathering of prehistoric cultures in the area followed by Sumerian era|
|Recorded history begins:|
|3500||(3500?) Semitic tribes settle at Ur, Sumer speaking Akkadian, writing
on limestone tablets to 3500, clay tablets to 3200
Positional number system and wheels were used
Sacred Vase of Warka used in Sumer to worship the goddess Innin
|2900||Still considered legendary:
Sumerain King List of eight names, graves of Meskalamdug and Akalamdug found at the Royal Tombs at Ur.
First dynasty of Kish, includes last king Enmebaragesi and his son Agga
First dynasty of Uruk, includes kings Enmerkar, Lugalbanda, and Gilgamesh
First dynasty of Ur under , followed by many more dynasties
|2600||First dynasty of Lagash under King Mesilim, King of Kesh - Ur-Nina or Uranshe (3375?)|
|2750||Assyrians occupied Assur and Nineveh in upper Tigris Valley
Queen Paubi lived in Ur (Uruk) in Mesopotamia (Not in A)
|2700||Sumerian King Gilgamesh rules the city of Ur (Uruk), now pop of 50,000|
|2460||2525? Uranshe's grandson, Eannatum of Lagash fought the Sumerians in Kish and Ur, controlled Mari and Elam. His victory over Umma is recorded in the Stele of Vulture.|
|2378||to 2371: Uru-inim-gina of Lagash established freedom (amargi)|
|2371||Lugal-zagesi becomes governor of Umma, defeated Lagash and took the title King of Uruk, third Uruk dynasty. Meso pop now at half million?|
|2360||Sargon of royal rank leaves Kish in Sumer under Ur-Zababa and builds
Akkad, takes Uruk, created the first empire, Akkadia. Defeats Lugal-zagesi
of Lagash, Amorites in Syria, Elam and Assyria, upper Meso, controlling "sea
to sea". Sumerian culture was adopted by the Akkadians. Trade went as far
as Indus Valley.
Sargon legends: he was found in a basket, became cup bearer for Ur-Zababa
Installed daughter, Enheduanna, as high priestess at Ur.
Sons Rimush (23152307) and Manishtushu (23062292) both died in battle
His grandson was Naramsin (22912255) first to consider himself to be divine, took over Elba in Syria and controlled Anatolia.
|2190||Gutium barbarians from Zagros mountains conquered Akkad under
Sumer city of Ashshur became Akkadian, rebuilt perhaps after Gutium assault
|2114||Utu-hegal of Uruk, King of Erech, drove out the Gutians, re-established
Sumerian kingdom, pop abt 1 million.
Ur-baba controlled Lagash
|2113 -||Third Ur dynasty : Ur-namma of Ur (21132096) took Sumer and Akkad,
produced law codes, built temple of Nanna at Ur.
Ur king Shulgi (20952048) conquered Elam and Upper Mesopotamia, proclaimed himself a divine king.
Ur king Shu-Sin (20382030) built a 150-mile-long wall between the rivers against approaching Amorites
Following leaders fought off Amorites
|2000's||Amorites took over Lower Meso Sumer and Akkad under Ibbsin
2025 Larsa became independent, 2017 Ishbi-Erra established dynasty at Isin, Eshnunna and Elam also independent.
2004 Elamites devasted Ur and took Ibbsin prisoner.
Tables of square roots, cube roots, expotential functions, Pythagorean numbers existed
|1900s||Sumerians lost independence to the Sumerian cities Isin under Ishbierra who drove out Elamites under Samium, Nippur was destroyed|
|1900||Hebrews and Israelites left Mesopotamia for Palestine, including
Other Israelites went to Egypt and were made slaves by Ramses II
|1830 aft||King Sumiabum founded the Amorite dynasty in Babylon, the first Babylonian empire, northern Mesopotamia (1813?)|
|1787||Amorites conquered Uruk and Isin (1787 to 1785)|
|1728||The sixth Amorite king Hammurabi defeated Rimsin of Larsa, Elam amd Larsa.
Mari in 1697. (1759?)
Akkadian became the common language, Sumerian finally dying out
Established the Code of Hammurabi, first law code was written that includes an "eye for an eye"
|1700||Hurrians invade Mesopotamia from the Caucasus|
|1531||1595? Kassites conquered Babylonia after a Hittiti raid that brought horses.|
|1500||Hurrians invaded Mesopotamia, Syria, eastern Anatolia, Palestine
They had unknown language and the ruling class had Aryan names, bringing chariots to Mesopotamia
Hurrians built the Mitanni kingdom, capital Washukkani
|1475||Tutmosis III plundered Mitanni|
|1424||Mitanni king Artadama gave his daughters to Thutmosis IV in marriage
for his alliance, thusly held Aleppo and northern Syria
Tuishrata and Sudarna also gave daughters to Amenophis
|1380||Tuishrata disputed the Mitanni throne with his brother who received Hittiti king's support. Tuishrata warred with the Hittities and died. The Hittiti king changed sides and supported Tuishrata's sons who received the throne|
|1356||After the Hittiti king's death, Assuruballit of Akkad pillaged and ended Mitanni and built Assyria, Babylonian culture with Hurrian and Hittiti influences|
|1300/4||Migration of Akhlamus (Arameans) into Mesopotamia and Syria|
|1308||Adadnirari built temples at his capital Assur|
|1200/2||Shalmaneser I fought Hurrians and Hittities.
His son took Kassite Babylon, named the first King of Babylon
|1209||2nd dynasty of Isin in Babylon under Nebuchadrezzar I|
|1150||Elamites from Elam plundered the temple of Akkad, Nabuchadrazzer took control of Babylon, conquered Elamites (1128), fought Assyria|
|1116||Tiglath-pileser I of Assyria conquered in Anatolia, Arameans invading
Syria, Babylon which basically collapses
Phoenicia paid him tribute. He was hated by all.
|1078||Upper Mespotamia and Assyria over run by Armaeans and Chaldeans|
|935||Assurdan re-established the Assyrian empire, then Assurnasirapi built Calah, organized Assyria|
|859||Shalmaneser III fought Arameans, allied with Ben Hadad of Damascus and Ahab of Israel, controlled Med routes|
|855||Shalmaneser III fought Arameans, allied with Hittiti kings from Carchemish and won|
|854||Shalmaneser III against Egyptians at Qarqar|
|842||Shalmaneser III defeats new Damascus king Hazael who recovers and takes Transjordon, Philistia, controls Judah and Israel|
|745||Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria became King of Babylon 729, tributes from Israel, Syria, Damascus (732).|
|726||Shalmaneser IV usurped the Assyrian throne, took Samaria with son Sargon II|
|722||Sargon II of Assyria conquered Merodach-baladan of Babylon, Gaza, finally
Tyre, Judah, Carchemish, Samaria.
Sargon took all of Israel, ending the Kingdom of Israel
|721||Sargon II defeated by Merodach-baladan of Babylon and ally Humbanigash of Elam at Der|
|709||Sargon II took the title King of Babylon|
|705||Sennacheruib, son of Sargon II ruled Assyria at Ninevah|
|703||Merodach-baladan returns to take Babylon temporarily|
|701||Sennacheruib takes Phoenicia, Philitia, because of a conspiracy, destroys Judah but failed to take Jerusalem|
|694||Elamite Hallushu took Sennacherib of Babylon's son as captive|
|689||Babylon sacked in war with Chaldeans|
|682||Sennacheruib murdered by one of his sons, another, Essarhaddon, takes over, rebuilt Babylon|
|677||Assyria took Sidon and Memphis in 671|
|671||Essarhaddon of Assyria took Memphis|
|667||Ashurbanipal King of Assyria son of Sennacherib, trips into Egypt, sacking
Thebes 663 but did not gain control.
He destroyed Susa, ending the Elamite Kingdom in Iran.
His empire would include Babylonia, Persia, Syria
|663||Essarhaddon of Assyria sacks Thebes stopping Ethiopian power in Egypt|
|652||Ashurbanipal 's brother, the King of Babylon had Chaldean, Aramean, Egyptian and Elamite allies, civil war to 626|
|650ish||Assyrians driven out of Egypt|
|648||Assyrian king Assurbanipal destroys newly rebuilt Babylon|
|626||The start of the decline of Assyria, influx of Chaleans|
|612||Nabopolasser, King of Babylonia and Chaldean Cyaxares of Media destroyed Ninevah, divided the Assyrian empire east of the Tigris|
|609||Last attempts to take back Assyrian city Harran failed|
|605||Chaldean Nebuchadrezzar II The Great of Babylon, crowned Sept 7, 605. defeated Egyptian Necho at Carchemish|
|601||Nacho victorious over Nebuchrezzar at the Egyptian border|
|597/8||Nebuchrezzar II took Judah but not Tyre|
|587||July - Nebuchrezzar II finally took Jerusalem.laid to waste and took Jews captive|
|561||Nebuchrezzar died, several small leaders followed|
|539||Cyrus the Great from Persia went to Babylon, his general, Gobryas took Babylon without a fight Oct 29, 539|
|Assyria ceased to exist, Babylonia was under Persian rule. Assyrians fled west to Egypt|
|332||Alexander the Great took Babylonia|
|171 BC||Parthian rule to 226 AD|
|64 BC||Assyria would become "Syria"|
|226 AD||Sassanian Dynasty to 641
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