5000 BC Tell Halaf pottery in northern Mesopotamia
4500 Al Ubaid period: painted pottery and simple agriculture, followed by the Uruk period of copper and writing
3000's Jamdat Nasr (Early Bronze Age) period: gathering of prehistoric cultures in the area followed by Sumerian era
Recorded history begins:
3500 (3500?) Semitic tribes settle at Ur, Sumer speaking Akkadian, writing on limestone tablets to 3500, clay tablets to 3200
Positional number system and wheels were used
Sacred Vase of Warka used in Sumer to worship the goddess Innin
2900 Still considered legendary:
Sumerain King List of eight names, graves of Meskalamdug and Akalamdug found at the Royal Tombs at Ur.
First dynasty of Kish, includes last king Enmebaragesi and his son Agga
First dynasty of Uruk, includes kings Enmerkar, Lugalbanda, and Gilgamesh
First dynasty of Ur under , followed by many more dynasties
2600 First dynasty of Lagash under King Mesilim, King of Kesh - Ur-Nina or Uranshe (3375?)
2750 Assyrians occupied Assur and Nineveh in upper Tigris Valley
Queen Paubi lived in Ur (Uruk) in Mesopotamia (Not in A)
2700 Sumerian King Gilgamesh rules the city of Ur (Uruk), now pop of 50,000
2460 2525? Uranshe's grandson, Eannatum of Lagash fought the Sumerians in Kish and Ur, controlled Mari and Elam. His victory over Umma is recorded in the Stele of Vulture.
2378 to 2371: Uru-inim-gina of Lagash established “freedom” (amargi)
2371 Lugal-zagesi becomes governor of Umma, defeated Lagash and took the title King of Uruk, third Uruk dynasty. Meso pop now at half million?
2360 Sargon of royal rank leaves Kish in Sumer under Ur-Zababa and builds Akkad, takes Uruk, created the first empire, Akkadia. Defeats Lugal-zagesi of Lagash, Amorites in Syria, Elam and Assyria, upper Meso, controlling "sea to sea". Sumerian culture was adopted by the Akkadians. Trade went as far as Indus Valley.
Sargon legends: he was found in a basket, became cup bearer for Ur-Zababa
Installed daughter, Enheduanna, as high priestess at Ur.
Sons Rimush (2315–2307) and Manishtushu (2306–2292) both died in battle
His grandson was Naramsin (2291–2255) first to consider himself to be divine, took over Elba in Syria and controlled Anatolia.
2190 Gutium barbarians from Zagros mountains conquered Akkad under Shar-kali-sharri (2254–2230)
Sumer city of Ashshur became Akkadian, rebuilt perhaps after Gutium assault
2114 Utu-hegal of Uruk, King of Erech, drove out the Gutians, re-established Sumerian kingdom, pop abt 1 million.
Ur-baba controlled Lagash
2113 - Third Ur dynasty : Ur-namma of Ur (2113–2096) took Sumer and Akkad, produced law codes, built temple of Nanna at Ur.
Ur king Shulgi (2095–2048) conquered Elam and Upper Mesopotamia, proclaimed himself a divine king.
Ur king Shu-Sin (2038–2030) built a 150-mile-long wall between the rivers against  approaching Amorites
Following leaders fought off Amorites
2000's Amorites took over Lower Meso Sumer and Akkad under Ibbsin (2029–2006)
2025 Larsa became independent,  2017 Ishbi-Erra established dynasty at Isin, Eshnunna and Elam also independent.
2004 Elamites devasted Ur and took Ibbsin prisoner.
Tables of square roots, cube roots, expotential functions, Pythagorean numbers existed
1900s Sumerians lost independence to the Sumerian cities Isin under Ishbierra who drove out Elamites under Samium, Nippur was destroyed
1900 Hebrews and Israelites left Mesopotamia for Palestine, including Abraham
Other Israelites went to Egypt and were made slaves by Ramses II
1830 aft King Sumiabum founded the Amorite dynasty in Babylon, the first Babylonian empire, northern Mesopotamia (1813?)
1787 Amorites conquered Uruk and Isin (1787 to 1785)
1728 The sixth Amorite king Hammurabi defeated Rimsin of Larsa, Elam amd Larsa. Mari in 1697. (1759?)
Akkadian became the common language, Sumerian finally dying out
Established the Code of Hammurabi, first law code was written that includes an "eye for an eye"
1700 Hurrians invade Mesopotamia from the Caucasus
1686 Hammurabi died
1531 1595? Kassites conquered Babylonia after a Hittiti raid that brought horses.   
1500 Hurrians invaded Mesopotamia, Syria, eastern Anatolia, Palestine
They had unknown language and the ruling class had Aryan names, bringing chariots to Mesopotamia
Hurrians built the Mitanni kingdom, capital Washukkani
1475 Tutmosis III plundered Mitanni
1424 Mitanni king Artadama gave his daughters to Thutmosis IV in marriage for his alliance, thusly held Aleppo and northern Syria
Tuishrata and Sudarna also gave daughters to Amenophis
1380 Tuishrata disputed the Mitanni throne with his brother who received Hittiti king's support. Tuishrata warred with the Hittities and died. The Hittiti king changed sides and supported Tuishrata's sons who received the throne
1356 After the Hittiti king's death, Assuruballit of Akkad pillaged and ended Mitanni and built Assyria, Babylonian culture with Hurrian and Hittiti influences
1300/4 Migration of Akhlamus (Arameans) into Mesopotamia and Syria
1308 Adadnirari built temples at his capital Assur
1200/2 Shalmaneser I fought Hurrians and Hittities.
His son took Kassite Babylon, named the first King of Babylon
1209 2nd dynasty of Isin in Babylon under Nebuchadrezzar I
1150 Elamites from Elam plundered the temple of Akkad, Nabuchadrazzer took control of Babylon, conquered Elamites (1128), fought Assyria
1116 Tiglath-pileser I of Assyria conquered in Anatolia, Arameans invading Syria, Babylon which basically collapses
Phoenicia paid him tribute. He was hated by all.
1078 Upper Mespotamia and Assyria over run by Armaeans and Chaldeans
935 Assurdan re-established the Assyrian empire, then Assurnasirapi built Calah, organized Assyria
859 Shalmaneser III fought Arameans, allied with Ben Hadad of Damascus and Ahab of Israel, controlled Med routes
855 Shalmaneser III fought Arameans, allied with Hittiti kings from Carchemish and won
854 Shalmaneser III against Egyptians at Qarqar
842 Shalmaneser III defeats new Damascus king Hazael who recovers and takes Transjordon, Philistia, controls Judah and Israel
745 Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria became King of Babylon 729, tributes from Israel, Syria, Damascus (732).
726 Shalmaneser IV usurped the Assyrian throne, took Samaria with son Sargon II
722 Sargon II of Assyria conquered Merodach-baladan of Babylon, Gaza, finally Tyre, Judah, Carchemish, Samaria.
Sargon took all of Israel, ending the Kingdom of Israel
721 Sargon II defeated by Merodach-baladan of Babylon and ally Humbanigash of Elam at Der
709 Sargon II took the title King of Babylon
705 Sennacheruib, son of Sargon II ruled Assyria at Ninevah
703 Merodach-baladan returns to take Babylon temporarily
701 Sennacheruib takes Phoenicia, Philitia, because of a conspiracy, destroys Judah but failed to take Jerusalem
694 Elamite Hallushu took Sennacherib of Babylon's son as captive
689 Babylon sacked in war with Chaldeans
682 Sennacheruib murdered by one of his sons, another, Essarhaddon, takes over, rebuilt Babylon
677 Assyria took Sidon and Memphis in 671
671 Essarhaddon of Assyria took Memphis
667 Ashurbanipal King of Assyria son of Sennacherib, trips into Egypt, sacking Thebes 663 but did not gain control.
He destroyed Susa, ending the Elamite Kingdom in Iran.
His empire would include Babylonia, Persia, Syria
663 Essarhaddon of Assyria sacks Thebes stopping Ethiopian power in Egypt
652 Ashurbanipal 's brother, the King of Babylon had Chaldean, Aramean, Egyptian and Elamite allies, civil war to 626
650ish Assyrians driven out of Egypt
648 Assyrian king Assurbanipal destroys newly rebuilt Babylon
626 The start of the decline of Assyria, influx of Chaleans
612 Nabopolasser, King of Babylonia and Chaldean Cyaxares of Media destroyed Ninevah, divided the Assyrian empire east of the Tigris
609 Last attempts to take back Assyrian city Harran failed
605 Chaldean Nebuchadrezzar II The Great of Babylon, crowned Sept 7, 605. defeated Egyptian Necho at Carchemish
601 Nacho victorious over Nebuchrezzar at the Egyptian border
597/8 Nebuchrezzar II took Judah but not Tyre
587 July - Nebuchrezzar II finally took Jerusalem.laid to waste and took Jews captive
561 Nebuchrezzar died, several small leaders followed
539 Cyrus the Great from Persia went to Babylon, his general, Gobryas took Babylon without a fight Oct 29, 539
Assyria ceased to exist, Babylonia was under Persian rule. Assyrians fled west to Egypt
332 Alexander the Great took Babylonia
See Alexander
323 Seleucids ruled
171 BC Parthian rule to 226 AD
64 BC Assyria would become "Syria"
226 AD Sassanian Dynasty to 641

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