8300 BC Sub arctic Mesolithic period A-19
Cultures closely related to those in Africa and Spain
Occupants generally long headed white or European stock followed by round headed people possibly from Africa
7500's Boreal period: post glacial
6000's Neolithic cultures in Aegean area, Thessaly and Macedonia
5500's Atlantic period: high sea levels, warmer climate
5000's Foods from Greece spread to Balkans, Bulgaria, Romania, Yugoslavia then Europe along the Danube
Earliest Neolithic settlement in Crete
4000's Orkney islands were occupied
4075 ish Danubian villages in Czechoslovakia, their farming spread to central Europe to the Netherlands, Moldavia and the Ukraine
3000's Sub-Boreal period: stable land, dry climate
Neolithic era for northern and western Europe
Bronze Age in Aegeans with Asian influence
Windmill Hill culture in British Isles
South England was occupied by people from Spain and Brittany
12 Stones of Stennes built on Orkeny Islands
3100 Earliest activity or building of Stonehenge
2750 Silbury Hill constructed in Avenury England
2500 Habitation at Trier, Germany
2025 ish Bronze Age in Hungary with Asian influence
2000's England occupied by people from the Rhine and Danube River regions
Notes There were four main routes of traffic into Europe:
Western Asia through Russia to central and western Europe
Asia Minor throught Ageans to Greece to central Europe
Near East and Aegeans to Med area
North Africa to Spain and western Europe
2000 Copper in Spain influenced by Beaker People in western Europe
1900's Beaker people appear in southern Britain, as early as 4000 BC
1800 General Bronze Age for all of Europe
1200's Celts are of two categories:
Brythons or Britons in Wales (perhaps as early as 2500 BC)
Gaels in northern Ireland and high Scotland
1000's Celts occupied W Europe north of Alps, France, Belgium, Switzerland, Germany & W Alps
Druids started to celebrate their Samhain and other holidays (800's?)
999 ish Iron Age in Austria
800's Celtic speaking people lived on the Iberian peninnsula of Spain and Portugal reaching to Belgium (Belgae) and to Gaul (Galli) in modern France. Their point of origin is believed to be in the Hartz Mountains in Germany.
Celts related to Gallic and Belge Celts migrated and have total control of Britian and Ireland
753 Rome created by legendary Troy twins Romulus and Remus, who took local Sabrine women for their wives.
750 Iron age in general Europe, Hallstatt period to 450 BC
Indo-European languages spread:
Greek Illyrian speakers from Balkans to Greece
Italic speakers to Italy
Celtic speakers from western Europe to France and British Isles followed by Teutonics
Celts living on the shores of the lakes in Switzerland were attacked by Germanic tribes and migrated to Britain along with their agriculture tools and knowledge, including the use of iron, cattle enclosures, horse shields, swords
700's White Horse of Uffington, England (365' high) drawn on chalk hillside
Celtic Hallstatt Culture spread across Europe
600's Merchants from Phocis in central Greece made a treaty with Keltoi in Spain, trading goods for the Keltoi's silver
Segobrigai ('exaulted' and 'daring of strength') tribe settled in Massilia (Marseilles). Celts had settled in Po Valley
Celts moved eastward to the Danube and settled in the Czech and Slovak states, Bohemia (named for the Celtic Boii tribe), Illyria near the Balkans and out to the Black Sea
Nomadic Scythians introduce the Celts to trousers
500's End of Hallstatt period, beginning of La Tene period
The Le Tene Celtic culture developed in eastern France and southern Germany, developing into the Celtic style, named after the La Tene region of Switzerland at the north eastern end of Lake Neuchatel. The design was initially used to decorate the jugs that held their beloved wine they were so fond of.
The Etruscans lost power in Italy to the Romans.
509 Last Estruscan king ruled Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. Once he was removed, he Roman Republic began.
475 Boii and Insubres Celts defeated the Etruscan empire armies at Ticiano, taking control of the Po valley
400's Sub-Atlantic period: wet, cold climate
True Iron Age for British Isles, followed by La Tenes, Belgae and Romans
400's Celts from the Alps flowed into Italy
Herodotus of Halicarnassus reported a merchant from Samos named Colacus was driven off course by tides and winds when trading off the African shore. He landed at the Tartessus (modern River Guadalquivir in southern Spain) where he found tribes of Keltoi working the silver mines
396 Celts defeated the Etruscans at Melpum (Melzo, west of Milan)
390 Senones Celts ('the veterans') led by Brennus defeated the Romans in Rome (July 19) so badly it took the Romans 200 years to recover. After seven months and a ransom of 100 pounds of gold, the Celts moved along to Picenum on Italy's eastern seaboard.
Ephoros of Cyme reported the Celts occupied an area the size of the Indian sub-continent.
334-335 Alexander of Macedonia met the Celts on the Danube banks to make an agreement: The Celts would not attack his empire while he was off conquering in the east. Only after his death they expanded to Moravia and Thace
200's The Celts had reached their height in expansion, from Ireland to Turkey, Belgium to Spain and scross the Alps to Po valley. Celtic settlements have been found in Poland, Russia and the Ukraine.
Celtic war lords from France invaded Britain, resisted in South Britain, so turned north to Norfolk and Suffolk, Yorkshire, Lancaster and Scotland.
298 The Etruscans and the Celts formed an alliance against the Romans, to be joined by the Sammites in a victory at Camerium (Cameria) NE of Rome where an entire legion was destroyed.
295 Battle of Sentium the Romans won against Sammites and a reported 1000 Celtic chariots
283 The Romans led by Curius Dentatus burnt and pillaged the Senones Celts at Picenum. The northern Boii Celts joined the Etruscans to fight the Romans who annihilated the Etruscans and the Celts withdrew, only to form a treaty with the Romans the following year. Roman territory was increasing.
The Greek king, Pyrrhus of Epiros landed in south Italy to help the Greek cities against the Romans, allied with the Po Valley Celts, but lost to the Romans at Beneventum and returned home taking Celtic warriors with him
279 Three divisions of Celts invaded the Greek penninsula. Bolgois' division defeated Macedonia and killed the king Ptolemy Ceraunos, who had been Alexander's foremost general. The army under Brennus and Acichorios entered Greece, past Macedonia to Thessaly and defeated Callippus, son of Moerocles at the battle of Thermopylae. The third army led by Cerethrios defeated the new Macedonian king Antigonatus Gonatas. The Celts sacked the holy sanctuary of Delphi. Greece had to cancel their annual games that year. The Olympics? Some Celts remained, threatening Macedonia while others returned to the north settling in Bulgaria, Albania and Rumania.At the invitation of Nicomedes of Bithynia, 20,000 Celts and their families (from the Tolistoboii, Tectosages and Trocmi tribes led by their kings Litarios and Leonnarios) migrated to Asia Minor establishing a settlement in Turkey's central plains ,Galatia. Tectosages in Ancyra (Ankara), the Tolistoboii renamed Gordium to Vindia, and the Trocmi  settled east of the river Halys.
277-276 4000 Celt warriors traveled to Egypt to serve the pharaoh Ptolemy II
263 The First Punic wars. 3000 Celts fought for Carthage
261 Galatian Celts defeated the mighty Syrian army at Ephesus and killed the king, Antiochus I
259 Ptolemy II stopped a Celtic troop takeover, banishing the Celts to an island in the Nile where they starved to death
241 Attalos I of Pergamum defeated the Celts at the headwaters of Caioc and Pergamum could finally stop paying tribute to the Celts
225 Battle of Telamon - Boii and Insubres Celts with their professional warriors, the Gaesatae, commanders Aneroestes and Concolitanus along with 50,000 infantry and 20,000 cavalry stood against 700,00 Roman infantry and 70,000 Roman cavalry. The Celts lost in what is described as the most spectacular battle in Celtic history.
224 The Romans invaded and devastated Boii territory
223 The Romans took over Insubres territory, whose capital was Milan
222 The Celts asked for a peace treaty with the Romans. Gnaeus Cornelia Scipio and Marcus Claudius Marcellus refused, holding out for what they clearly wanted, an extermination of the Celts. The Celts recruited the Gaesatae whose reknown leader was Viridomarus challenged Marcellus to single handed combat to determine the outcome. He lost. The Romans took Po Valley in the end of the 'Celtic Wars'.
218 Hannibal of Carthage had an half Celtic army when he approached Po Valley, resulting in a famous victory against the Romans in 216 at Cannae
217 14,000 Celts now in Egypt were at the battle of Raphia with Ptolemy IV against Antiochis II of Syria, a victory because of the Celt cavalry.
203 Celts and Celtiberians successfully defend Carthage against Roman attack at Utica
193 According to Livy, the Boii fought well but were defeated by the Romans along the Po River: 14,000 dead, 1092 captured alive with 721 horses, three chieftains, 212 standards and 63 wagons. A year later a Boii chieftain surrended to a Roman counsel, Titus Quinctius Flaminius who had him and his family ritually slaughtered as entertainment for his boyfriend
191 Po Valley and it's remaining Celts were finally, completely Romanized
Galatian Celts  still independent from the Greeks, formed an alliance with Antiochus III of Syria. Their battle of Magnesia was a major Roman victory. The Romans were allied by Eumenes II of Pergamum and the brother of the commander who took down Hannibal, Lucius Cornelius Scipio
189 Gnaus Manilus Volso was sent to Turkey to crush the Galatian Celts. The Tolistoboii and Trocmi were defeated at the battle of Mount Olympus near Pessinus, a battle of slaughter including innocents. The Tectosages were defeated at a hill named Magaba near Ancyra. Ortagion, a Tolistoboii chieftain reunited what was left of the three tribes.
179 Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus offered the Iberian Celts enlistment into the Roman army, not readily accepted
152 Numantia Celts almost destoyed an advancing Roman army, leading to a treaty in 151 which was broken the following year by a new Roman commander, Galba, whose brutality was criticized even in Rome.
148 The Celts under Viriathos revenged on Galba, forcing his surrender, but a traitor murdered Vitiathos in his sleep.
136 The Roman Mancinus surrendered with 20,000 troops to the Celts at Pallantia
134 Publius Cornelius Scipio was sent to Numantia to finish off the Celts, surrounding the tribe and starving them by isolation. Rhetogenes led 400 to break the seige but were captured and paraded in front of the town with their right hands severed. The Celts finally surrended, 8,000 men women and children against 60,000 Romans. Numantia was burnt, Fifty Celtic leaders were taken to Rome for ceremonial sacrifice, the rest sold into slavery.
118 Romans expanded to Massilia, having defeated the Salyes Celts, as well as southern Gaul, Provence, Toulouse, and Narbon.
109 Romanian Celts and the Dacians made a treaty to try and stop the approaching Romans
88 Mithridates V 'The Great' of Pontus invited sixty major Celtic chieftains to dine and discuss. He relied on the Celtic tradition of no arms could be worn entering a feasting hall and slaughtered them all save one, Deiotarus, son of Dumnorix of the Tolistoboii.
81 Schools were set up under the guidance of Sertorius for the children of Celtic kings and chieftains, using Latin for writings.
75 Belgae Celts from between Seine and Rhine in France (Gaul) pressured from northern Germans and Romans from France and Mediterranean to leave homelands and invade SE Britain, creating sharp divide between themselves and residents. England remained non-Celtic and turned Roman, Wales and Scotland run by Celts
Belgae tribal centers were in Winchester, Chichester, St Albans (then Verulamium) and Colchester.
57 Caesar's first excursion to the British Isles failed due to boats damaged in storms and was met by Celts in chariots who fought him off
Battle of Nervii, Nervii Belgae Celts were annihilated by the Romans
55 Caesar's second excursion to the British Isles, stormed Belgic hill fort near Canterbury, crossed the Thames near London, obtained submission form southern chieftains and returned to Rome.
54 Caesar's third excursion to the British Isles
40's Cleopatra had an elite Celtic warrior bodyguard
4 BC Herod the Great died, his funeral was attended by Celtic bodyguards.
10 AD Great Celtic king Cunobelinus of the Trinovantes ruled south Britain from about 10 AD to 40 AD, possessing a mint and started extensive trade with Gaul.
43 Roman Emperor Claudius sends Aulus Plautius and 40,000 men on Britain expedition, established bases in now Kent took 40 years to settle. Romans did not want Scotland or Wales who resisted Roman rule. Romans legions at Chester and Caerwent against Picts and Celtic tribes. Hadrian's wall 72 miles long was built connecting the Tyne to the Solway. (121?) Those who supported Gauls on mainland were punished.
54 Claudius prohibited the existence of Druids
60-61 Boudicca, the Queen of the Iceni retaliated against the Romans for their brutality
84 Roman Agricola victory of Mons Graupius in present-day Scotland over Calgacus "the swordsman," carrying Roman arms to Caledonia with a southern border built called Antonine Wall, connecting the Firths of Forth and Clyde. Caledonian resisted, Romans withdrew to Hadrian's Wall.
In greater Britain, Romans created chartered towns, Colchester, Gloucester, Lincoln, and York. Land ownership declared, taxes collected.
Outside chartered towns, inhabitants were called peregrini, or non-citizens, organized into local government areas called civitates, largely based on pre-existing chiefdom boundaries. Canterbury and Chelmsford were two of the civitas capitals.
Native Britons in the countryside developed Bignor, Chedworth and Lullingstone, lavish living conditions.
123 Emperor Hadrian built Hadrian's Wall from Solway Firth to Tyne river mouth, bringing peace until the 300's
193 Roman Clodius Albinis declared himself governor of Britain
208 Emperor Septimius Severus arrives invading Caledonia (Scotland), restored Roman military, fixes Hadrian's Wall as final frontier of Roman conquest.
250's German Saxon pirate raids on eastern and southern coasts of Britain. The "Count of the Saxon Shores" supervised coastal defenses
306 Constantine was declared King of the Britons at York after his father's death
350 Raids on the Romans by the Scoti (Irish) and Picts (Scots) were common, by passing Hadrian's wall through the sea, cutting off Britain from Rome, leaving Romans and British Romans to defend themselves
367 Picts, Scots and Saxons raided Britain together
383 Magnus Maximus led revolt to dethrone Gratian as Emperor in the West, opened Wales recognition, now recognized hero to the Welsh as Macsen Wledig, celebrated in poetry and song
388 Magnus Maximus killed by Emperor Thedosius, Dionotus, the brother of Caradocus, became king of the Britons
397 Gospel missionary St Ninian died, buried Whithorn, Galloway where he built church Candida Casa, White House
400's Gradual division of Britain:
Brythonic west - Britons, Scots, Angles
Teutonic east - Angles
Gaelic north - British and Angles
Scotland, now divided as:
The Picts of Celtic, perhaps of Scythian stock, from Caithness in the north to the Forth in the south.
The Scots, from Northern Ireland occupied Kintyre and the neighboring islands in the third and fourth centuries.
407 Nordic, Jute, Angles and Saxons enter Britian, forever changing the racial base of England.
Roman evacuation of England began, all Roman government dissolved by 442  Romans abandoned Britain, creating Dark Ages. Roman language did not prevail, religion did.
442 Saxons firmly established at the mouth of the Thames
446 Marcian and Valentinian were emperors of Britain, ruled seven years.
See general time line 400's AD, 450AD

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