900's - "Scotia" no longer used in Ireland but in Scotland, isolated and surrounded after Dane invasions

900's - Earldom started. Lords had shires rented to peasants

900's - Eadulf becomes Earl of Northumbria

900/4 -  Merfyn Rhodri died, his son,  Llewelyn Merfyn, became King of Powys

906 - Edward I the Elder, first true King of England, with warrior sister Ethelfleda of Mercia started recovery of Danelaw, defeated Danes who invaded Kent and Essex.

907 - Peace made between Edward and Anglia Danes and Danes of York (Northumbria)

909 - Cadell Rhodri died, Hywel Dda Cadell, The Good King of Wales, son of Cadell Rhodri, grandson of Rhodri Mawr became King of Deheubarth, a consolidation of Dyfred, Ceredigion and Yslrad Towi.

910 August 5- Edward defeated Danes at Tettenhall in Northumbria, acknowledged by Vikings of York killing two Danish kings who were soon replaced by Ragnall (Norse) from Northumbria and Jorvik (York) remained separate under Danish rule.

911 - Danes broke truce and plundered Mercia

911 - Charles III The Simple, king of the Franks, unable to expel Norse Vikings granted residency at the mouth of the Seine to Rollo with the Treaty of St. Claire-sur-Epte (baptized Robert per conditions and became a Christian), Hrolf the Ganger from Norway. Theory being the Norsemen would have to, and could not, fight their way through other strong Vikings in order to reach Paris. This established the Duchy of Normandy.

911 - William of Normandy the Conqueror, Viking, came to France, his people called themselves Franks.

911 - Germany's Frankish line dies out.

Germany now five duchies: Bavaria, Franconia, Lorraine, Saxony and Swabia

Conrad I of Franconia elected king by German dukes

913 - Ealdred, son of Eadulf becomes Earl or High Reeve of Northumbria

916 - Idwal Anaward, son of Anaward Rhodri, became King of Gwynedd as Anaward dies

917 - Edward retaliated against Northumbria York Danes and conquered them

919 - Henry the Fowler (Heinrich King of the Germans) took over Germany, founded Saxon dynasty, permanently separating France & Germany, crowned King of the Germans and Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire

921 - Kings of Strathclyde and Scots submit to Edward who became Lord of Scotland

922 - Ethelfleda, Edward's warrior sister died, Edward won over all Mercia. Ethelfleda married Ethelred, Duke of Mercia, great grandson is Leofric III whose wife is Lady Godiva.

923 - Robert, Count of Paris and foe to Charles the Simple won West Frankish lands with help of brother-in-law Herbert II de Vermandois Count of Vermandois and Rudolf, Duke of Burgundy, but killed in 923 leaving son Hugh the Great, too young to rule.

914 July 24 - Edward I died at Fardon on Dee, buried at Winchester Cathedral (924?)

925 - Æthelstan took over after Edward's death, the first English sovereign to be crowned on the King's Stone at Kingston-upon-Thames, took back Daneslaw territory

926- Athelstan's meeting in Hereford, river Wye declared border between England & S Wales, Athelstan extracts huge annual tributes from Welsh princes

927 - Æthelstan took York from Danes, forced submission of King Constantine of Scotland, eliminated Cornwall opposition, subdued five Welsh kings.

927 - York ruled by Norse King Guthfrith Ivarsson

929 - Rudolph II Duke of Burgundy ruled Normandy easily after Charles died as Hugh I Magnus refused the crown and took title Duke of the French.

930 - Osulf, son of Ealdred becomes Earl or High Reeve of Northumbria

930 - The kingdoms of Gwent and Glywysing were united under Morgan the Old to become Morgannwg.

934 - Idwal Foel Anaward forced to accompany Athelstan on campaign against Scots, Celt against Celt.

936 - Henry the Fowler died, son Otto I became King of Germany

936 - Louis IV, Charles III's son ruled  as King of France to 954.

938 - Battle of Brunanburgh Æthelstan won over Danes, Scots, Irish, defeated Scottish invasion

939 - Æthelstan died childless. Edmund I, The Magnificent, Æthelstan's half brother took over crown, took back Dane Midland territories Leichestershire, Lincoln, Nottingham, Derby and Stamford which created barrier between Northumbria and Wessex.

939 - York under Norse king rule, Olaf Gunthfrithsson

940 - Edmund I lost five boroughs (Danish Mercia) to the Danes, regained it 942.

942 - Idwal and his son Elisedd killed in battle against Edmund I,

Gwynedd and Powys ruled by Hywel Dda Cadell of Deheubarth until his death in 950.

942 - Edmund assigned full blooded Dane, Oda to be Archbishop of Canterbury.

943 - Malcolm I MacAlpin, son of Donald becomes King of Alba and Scotland

944 - Edmund I expelled Norse King Olaf from Northumbria

944 - York under Wessex rule to 947

945 - Edmund I took Cumbria and Strathclyde, entrusted to Malcolm I of Scotland for alliance.

945 - Igor Grand Price of Kiev was murdered, his wife Olga acted as regent until their son Svatislav took over in 964

946 - Edmund I stabbed to death by an outlaw robber, Leolf, at a banquet to St Augustine feast in his Pucklechurch Hall in Gloucester at 25 years old.

His brother Eadred took over and raised Edmund's sons Edwy and Edgar. Eadred acknowledged as the king of Wessex, overlord of Mercia, Danelaw and Northumbria.

Viking Eric Bloodaxe was deposed of by his own Norse people for being too blood thirsty, declared himself King of Northumbria and centered himself in York 947 to 948, attacked Wessex for twenty years. Eadred attacked Norse held Northumbria, whose people abandoned and expelled Eric.

949 - York back under Norse Olaf Cuaran's rule

950 - Hywel Cadell died. His sons Rhodri, Owain Hywel and Edwin battle Idwal Anaward's sons Iago and Ieuaf for Wales. Rhodri died in 953, Edwin killed in 954, both still young with no heirs, Owain inherited all of Deheubrath.

Iago Idwal and Ieuaf Idwal regain Gwynedd

Owain Hywel , son of Hywel Cadell, became King of Powys

Rhodri Hywell, Edwin Hywell and Owain Hywell are joint kings of Deheubarth?

952? Iago Idwal and Ieuaf Idwal start 17 year civil war for Gwynedd

952 - Eric Bloodaxe took back York

954 - Lothair succeeded his father, Louis IV.

954 - Malcolm I MacAlpin slain by Moray's men, his son, succeeded by his second cousin, Indulf, then Duff, Cuilean ring and then his son, Kenneth II MacAlpin in 971

954 - English regained York from Eric Bloodaxe

955 - Eadred died a young man from constant illness and weakness

955 - Henry the Fowler's son, Otto I The Great of Germany  and HRE drives Hungarians from southern Germany

Took control of old Frankish middle kingdom (Lothair I) which gave him right to title of Emperor

956 - Edwy/Eadwig, son of Edmund aged 13 or 16 crowned by Oda, Archbishop of Canterbury at Kingston-on-Thames on the Wessex Mercia border, on the frontier between Alfred's kingdom and Dane-law. Made enemies with Eadred's loyal bishop Dunstan by consorting with a noblewoman, Ælgifu/Elfgiva, daughter of Elthelgiva, when he should have been discussing state business. Edwy expelled Bishop and future saint Dunstan and married Elgiva. Edwy died before he was 20.

956 - Hugh I Magnus died, his son Hughes Capet became King of the West Franks

957 - Edwy dies, preventing civil war between brothers.

957 - Edgar The Peacable became King of Mercia and Northumbria and Wessex, formally crowned in 973. His coronation first recorded in detail, his consort Aelfthryth first to be crowned Queen of England.

Edgar recalled Dunstan to be Archbishop of Canterbury

Celts now in Scotland. Wales is independent but under English law.

Danes become local administrators.

960's - Eric the Red and his father, expelled from Norway for committing murder settled in Iceland

960 - Owain led attack on punitive Morgannwg.

963 - Waltheof of Northumbria, son of Maldred, becomes King of Northumbria

967 - Maredydd Owain became King of Deheubarth

969 - Iago ends civil war with brother over Gwynedd, imprisons Ieuaf, whose son Hywel continues fight against Iago.

970 - Owain's son Einion involved in skirmishes with Mercia and Gower penninsula

970 - Sancho Garcie III becomes King of Navarre

971 - Kenneth II MacAlpin, son of Malcolm becomes King of Alba and Scotland when father slain by Moray men

972 - Svatislav died, his son, Vladmir the Saint became Grand Prince of Kiev (978?)

973 11 May - Edgar The Peacable crowned King of England

973 - Edgar holds meeting in Chester to proclaim he is overlord of Wales.

973 - Otto I died, his son Otto II becomes Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire to his death in 983, marries Theophana

974 - Harold Gormsson Bluetooth loses to the Germans at Danevirke, Germans resettle on the coasts between Germany and Scandanavia.

975 - Edward II the Martyr at 12 took over at Edgar's sudden death at 33, rivaled by his younger half brother, Ethelred II whom nobles supported.

975 - Haley's comet seen again, famine followed the year's harvests.

977 - Work ordered by Owain to gather and publish Welsh chronicles and royal Welsh genealogies complete.

978 - Edward II the Martyr was murdered by seven year old Ethelred's supporters at Corfe Castle, Dorset. Ethelred II the Unready became king at 10, lived under suspicion of Ethelred's death, soft king earning his nickname.

978 - Lothair attempted to take Lorraine, but Otto II Emperor invaded to the walls of Paris aided by Hughes Capet and Gerbert of Reims, reducing Lothair' and his son Louis V's rule almost completely.

979 - Hywell Ieuaf conquers Iago Idwal for Gwynedd

983 - Hywel Ieuaf invades Deheubarth, outcome uncertain

983 - Otto II died, Henry II (grandson of Henry the Fowler) becomes Emperor of the Holy Empire

985 - Eric the Red after his father's death was expelled from Iceland for committing murder, moved to Greenland. 14 out of 25 ships made it.

985 - Ethelred II married Alfgifu, daughter of Thored of Mercia.

985 - Hywel Ieuaf killed, brother Cadwallon Ieuaf takes over Gwynedd

985 - Sveyn I Haraldsson Forkbeard de-thrones father Harald Gormsson, Blue Toothed King of Denmark, becomes King of Denmark

986 - Owain Hywel stepped down and turned the kingdom over to his son Maredydd Owainbut retained title until his death in 988

Maredydd Owain murders Cadwallon Ieuaf in revenge for 983 invasion of Deheubarth, takes Gwynedd.

987 - Hughes Capet elected King of France with help of Gerbert, Bishop of Reims, Duke of Anjou and Duke of Normandy. Otto recognized his title in exchange for Lorraine.

989 - Harald I became King of the Isle of Man

991 - Ethelred gained Normandy support by marrying Emma, daughter of Richard I Duke of Normandy and buying off attacks on Danes with money levied called Danegeld, creating tremendous financial crush on the crown.

Wantage Code of Ethelred states that the twelve leading thegns in each wapentake (village divisions) were to go out from the court and swear that they would neither accuse the innocent nor protect the guilty. Thus the sworn jury.

Danes led by the King of Denmark, Svein I Forked Beard, returned to northeast and northwest England, Wales, Devon, Cornwall. Ethelred tried to buy off Danish leader Anlaf (Olaf, King of Norway) at great cost to treasury, winning his nickname The Unready, without counsel.

995 - Uchtred, "The Bold", son of Waltheof, becomes King of Northumbria

996 - Hughes Capet dies, his son, Robert II the Pious becomes King of France

999 - Maredydd Owain dies, Cynan Hywell takes Gwynedd

Llewelyn Seisyllt , cousin of Iago Idwal, grandson of Elsie Anaward, the grandson of Rhodri Mawr, became King of Powys

999 - Cynan Hywel, son of Hywel Ieuaf, took over Gwynedd and Deheubarth. Died 1005.

999 - Godfred I became King of the Isle of Man

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