600's - Cynan Garwyn Brochfael, son of Brochfael Ysgythrog, became King of Powys
600 - Exiled King Oswald returned and restored area to Northumbria
601 - Augustine became the first Archbishop of Canterbury, (he was the bishop in London, head of the southern province and had 12 bishops under him) empowered by Pope Gregory, created two bishopries at West Kent and London where the East Saxon king was nephew of Ethelbert. Augustine was ordered to send a bishop to York as the head of the northern provinces.
King of East Anglia, Redwald also nephew of Ethelbert
601 - 604 King Aethelbert in Kent was the first to set down the laws of his people in the English language. Free landholders, no ruler outside of the king.
603 - Aedan had taken over Alclud, Gododdin, the Bernicians in Lothian, losing another son. It is thought that after these battles, Aedan gave the throne to his son, Eochaidh I Buidhe, nominated as successor by Columba and retired to a monastery in Kilkerran where he died in 608.
604 - Aethelfrith, King of Bernicia, becomes King of Deira
605 - Augustine died after the three kingdoms of Kent, Essex and East Anglia had received Christianity, but he failed to reach the Celt Bishops in Wales.
608 - Eochaidh I Buidhe, son of Aedan MacGabhran becomes King of Dalriada and Scotland
610 - Selyf Sarffgadau, son of Cynan Garwyn Brochfael became King of Powys
613 - Cadfan Iago, son of Iago Beli becomes King of Gwynedd
613 - Manwgan Saelyf became King of Powys
613 to 616 - Northumbrian Angles defeated Britons at Chester, dividing Strathclyde and Welsh Celts, ending larger Celt resistance. Romanized Celts fled with other Celts, losing their advanced culture
615 - Jutes and Angles reached Irish Channel and in control of what is now modern England
616 - Aethelbert's death, strong Celtic pagan reaction in Kent, son and new King of Kent, Eadbald was not Christian.
Redwald, King of East Anglia took over Kent becoming the most powerful king
616 - Saint Edwin becomes King of Bernicia and Deira
625 - Cadwallon Cadfan, son of Cadfan Iago becomes King of Gwynedd
625 - Pope creates two archbishops (with 12 bishops each) at York and London. London not under Ethelbert's control and Canterbury, Kent chosen instead.
Edwin ruled Northumbria as first Christian King, married Ethelbert's daughter with agreement she would continue Christian faith and studies. She brought Roman Bishop Paulinus with her, tall, dark and bent, emanciated face and hooked nose.
627 - Paulinus conviced Ethelbert to be baptized.
628 - Dagobert, Lothair II's son, strong ruler appointed Pepin I of Landen and Saint Arnulf Bishop as his advisors and mayors, beginning of the Carolingian Dynasty. Mayors became dominant positions.
628 - Penda takes the West Saxons under Cynegils, Hwicce passes from West Saxon control to Mercia's control.
628 - Arnulf married Pepin I of Landen's daughter, St. Begga of Landen.
629 - Eochaidh I Buidhe died, Connadd Cerr ruled Dal Riata for a short time until killed at the battle of Fid Eoin where the Scots and Northumbrians fought against the Ulaids. Domnal Brecc The Freckled, son of Eochidh becomes King of Dalriada and Scotland.
629 - Domnal's allegiance with Ireland's O'Neill kings ended, he sided with the Ulster kings
632 - Mohammed died, his followers compiled his works as the "Sunna" which included The Five Pillars of Islam and the Jihad (do the best to overcome temptation and evil)
632 - Edwin was defeated and slain in battle near marshes of Hatfield Chase by Cadwallon Cadfan, the only British King to overthrow a Saxon dynasty who allied himself to Penda of Mercia, the Middle Kingdom. Paulinus barely escapes to south England, Paganism returns.
633 - Penda's Heathen Mercians kill Edward of Northumbria at Hatfield, Ethelbert's brother-in-law, ends Northumberland supremacy. Penda took Edward's son Eadfrith as hostage and later had the boy murdered.
633 - Oswald of Northumbria (Aidan from Iona) returned from exile in Iona and restored the Saxon monarchy and Celtic Christianity, invited Iona monks to Northumbria
633 ish - Penda tried to take East Anglia, killing Anglian kings Sigebert and Egric in battle.
634 - Cadwallon Cadfan, killed in battle, usurper Cadafel Cadomedd takes over Gwynedd
634 - Oswald becomes King of Bernicia and Deira
634 - Monks arrive in Northumbria led by Aidan, settled on coastal island Lindisfarne, St Aidan went to Northumbria to restore the renewed paganism to Christianity.
635 - Cynegils, King of the West Saxons, was baptized in the Thames River.
635 - Penda becomes King of Mercia, the most blood thirsty of the early English kings.
637 - Domnall was defeated by O'Neill Irish at the battle of Mag Rath, fufilling another Columba prophesy. He was forced to rule Dal Riata jointly with Ferchar, Domnall's nephew and son of Connadd Cerr, and was delegated to rule only in Kintyre and Argyll.
641 - Oswy, Oswald's brother took over Northumbria to 670, King of Bernicia and Deira
642 - Arabs took Alexandria, second thought of the Library's destruction
642 - Domnal Brecc died in battle against the Picts (Irish) at Strathcarron near Falkirk by Owen Bili of the Strathclyde Britons. Ferchar ruled all of Dal Riata to 650
642 - Penda strengthend allegiance with Cynddylan of Powys and led a major force against Oswald of Northumbria at Maserfield (Oswestry). Penda's stronghold prevented Oswald's body from being recovered for a year.
645ish - Penda tried to conquer Northumbria again, but failed, and tried to set fire to the royal city of Bamburgh. According to Bede, the prayers of Bishop Aedan of Lindisfarne turned the winds towards the Mercians who had to flee.
645 - Penda drove Cenwealh out of Wessex, into exile in East Anglia under Anna, yet Penda did not rule Wessex, Cenwealh returned three years later with no resistance.
650 - At Ferchar's death, Dal Riata was split between until 660
650 - Penda drove Anna out of East Anglia, later killed him in battle in 653.
651 - Aethelwald, son of Oswald becomes King of Deira
654 - Cadwallon's son, Cadwaladr Fendigaid Cadwallon kills Cadafel Cadomedd and becomes King of Gwynedd
655 - Beli Eiludd became King of Powys
655 - Penda dies at the battle of Winaed, killed by Oswy, son of Oswald. Mercia then controlled by Peada, son of Penda.
656 - Pepin I of Landen's son Grimoald tried to usurp his father and died trying
656 - Oswine, son of Osric becomes King of Deira
657 - Northumbria princess founded monastery at Whitby, school of literature and training center for churchmen. Start of many monasteries of learning during the 700's
658 - Wulfhere, Penda's son rules Mercia
660 - Donmangart II MacDomnal, son of Domnal Brecc becomes King of Dalriada who restored the territory to a small extent.
660 - Wulfhere expanded Mercia into the west with Powys at the death of Cynddylan, then took Sussex
663 - Council of Whitby when king Oswy chose to support Roman church over Celtic church
664 - Celtic Church forced to accept Augustine's Roman St Peter (Roman) rules opposed to St Columba's
664 - Idwal Iwrch Cadwaladr, son of Cadwaladr Cadwallon becomes King of Gwynedd
664 - Oswiu of Bernicia becomes King of Northumbria, Bernicia and Deira combined
668/9 - Theodore of Tarsus, an elderly Greek monk becomes sixth successor to St. Augustine, Archbishop in Canterbury 669 to 690, introduces Roman parochial system, increases and defines church power, creates more bishoprics and transfers Celtic wealth to Roman church. Small private churches built on private land belonged to church. Close friend of Hadrian, the Abbot of Canterbury.
670 - Oswy dies, rival claimants to the throne create anarchy
670 - Ecgfrith, son of Oswiu becomes King of Northumbria
672 - Wulfhere aegis that directed the first general synod of the English church, reorganizing into smaller sanctions which would become administrative bases.
673 to 735 - Bede, greatest scholar and first historian of monastery times lived at Jarrow Monastery, wrote "The Ecclesiastical History of English People"
673 - At Egbert's death, Wulfhere kept his sons under his protection and having control of Kent as well.
674 - Wulfhere marched on Egfrith (one of Penda's hostages) in Northumbria and was defeated. Then Kent rebelled under Hlothhere, Wulfhere was defeated by the West Saxons by Aescwine and Wulfhere died soon after.
675 - Æthelred I, Penda's son and Wulfhere's brother rules Mercia
c 680 - Olaf Ingjaldsson The Woodcutter becomes King of Norway
685 - Mercia resisted Roman church, defeated.
Penda's successors continue to fight Wessex.
Ceawlin had was recognized as Mercian supreme ruler in Southern England (??)
685 - Idwal Iwrch Cadwaladr successful wars against Kent, conquest of Sussex to 688
Wessex also expanded westward into the Celtic strongholds of Devon and Cornwall
685 - Picts defeated Northumbrian Britons of Strathclyde at Battle of Nectansmere
685 - Aeldfrith, son of Oswiu becomes King of Northumbria
687 - Pepin II of Heristal, grandson to Pepin of Landen gained power in Neustria and Austrasia with victory over ? at Tertry
695 - Gwylog Beli became King of Powys
695 - Eochaid II King of Dalriada Crooked Nose, son of Domangart II, becomes King of Dalriada, claiming the kingdom from Domnal Donn and Ferchar, possibly held hostage until Ferchar's death in 697. Eochaid was murdered a few months later by Ferchar's son, Ainbcellach.
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