1501 - James IV, 29, marries Mary Margaret Tudor, 13, eldest daughter of Henry VII, keeps peace between France and England.

France appeals to Scotland for help against English, James sends Henry in England warning, answered by letter stating Henry the real owner of Scotland, James marches on England

1509 - Henry VII arranged marriage between oldest son Arthur to Catherine of Aragon, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella. Arthur dies after a few months.

1509 - Henry VIII married Catherine of Aragon, his brother, Arthur's widow

1509 - Henry VIII crowned king, Thomas Wolsey, Lord Chancellor basically rules England

1511 - Henry to France with Emperor Maximilian

1513 - James IV killed Battle at Flodden Edge, southeast of Braxton Hill, against Henry VIII forces, body was never found. Margaret, sister of Henry assumes Regency.

Henry took Tourney which France bought back for 600,000 crowns

1513 - James V became King of Scotland

1514 - Margaret marries Earl of Angus and was succeeded as Regent by the French-educated Duke of Albany, nephew of James III. Margaret tried to overtake Albany and kidnap James V, she flees to England.

James V takes over at 19

1516 - Mary Tudor, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine born

1517 - Monk Martin Luther nails his Thesis to church door in Wittenburg, Henry VIII wrote treatise to denounce it and the Pope titled Henry "Defender of the Faith"

James V married Madeline daughter of French King Francois. She dies 6 months later, James marries Marie of Lorraine.

1521 - Execution of Duke of Buckingham for high treason, descendant of Edward III

Henry writes the Assertion of the Seven Sacraments in response to Luther

1528 - Protestant Patrick Hamilton roasted to death on orders of Bishop St Andrew in Scotland

1529 - Henry asks for divorce from Catherine based on she was brother's widow, Wolsey protested and failed to obtain permission from Pope Clement IV in Rome who was beholden to Catherine's nephew, Charles V Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Henry removed great seal and gave it to Sir Thomas More who resigned in 1532

1529 - Henry VIII creates Reformation Parliament

1532 - More as resigns Archbishop of Canterbury, replaced by Thomas Cranmer as he supported marriage to Anne

Henry VIII breaks with Rome, who excommunicates him and annuls marriage to Catherine.

1533 - Henry VIII divorces Catherine, separating the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church, and secretly marries pregnant Anne Boleyn (performed by the Bishop of Lichfield at Whitehall) maid of honor at court, mother of Elizabeth

1534 - Henry passes two parliament acts officially establishing the Reformation in England.

One declares Pope has no authority in England. Act of Supremacy makes Church of England separate entity with King as supreme head.

1534 - Henry plans to take Wales and turn Scotland against France by making it Protestant. Parliament recognizes Elizabeth as heir.

Thomas Cromwell, Lord Chancellor issues orders for inspections of monasteries and confiscation of monastery properties. Parish priests made responsible for recording of local deaths, marriages, births.

1536 Jan 7 - Catherine of Aragon, Henry VIII's first wife died

1536 - Elizabeth born

1536 - Scot John Knox became a Catholic priest

1536 May 19 - Anne Boleyn beheaded for adultery, Princess Elizabeth proclaimed illegitimate.

1536 - William Tyndale's Bible published under authority of the King 'supreme Head of the Church of England"

1536 - All and government officials were required to publicly approve of the break with Rome and take an oath of loyalty.

1536 May 20 - Henry VIII marries Jane Seymour, mother of Edward VI b Oct 24 1537, Jane died in childbirth

1537 October - Lady Jane Grey born at Bradgate Manor in Leichestershire to Henry Grey, Marquis of Dorset and wife Francis, named in honour of the Queen Jane Seymour.

1539 - Statue of the Six Articles written by Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester include celibacy of priests, vows of chastity, private masses and confession

1540 Jan 24 - Henry VIII marries German Princess Anne of Cleves (he saw a portrait of her by Hans Holbein's but found her homely in person, never consummated the marriage.

1540 Jun 24 - Henry VIII divorces Anne of Cleves

1540 Aug 8 - Henry VIII marries Catherine Howard

1540 - Thomas Cromwell executed for treason (disagreed with marriage to Anne Boleyn)

1540's - John Knox became follower of Protestant reformer George Wishart

1542 Feb 12 - Catherine Howard beheaded for infidelity and misconduct

1542 - James offered the crown of Ireland, Henry VIII defeats him at Solway Moss where James dies.

Mary Stuart is born to James and French Mary of Guise in Linlithgow, Scotland, grandmother Margaret Tudor, mother of Mary Tudor was Henry VIII's sister

Ireland becomes a kingdom (?)

Henry VIII plans to marry his son Edward to Mary, infant daughter of James but Mary de Guise took Mary to Sterling Castle, Scone and had her crowned instead, preferring alliance with France

Henry allies with Emperor Someone

1543 Jul 10 - Henry VIII marries Catherine Parr who outlives Henry

1544 - Protestant priest John Knox and George Wishart arrive in Scotland to escape Cardinal Beaton

1544 - Parliament recognizes Mary (by Catherine Aragon) and Elizabeth (by Anne Boleyn) as rightful heirs to the throne of England

1545 - Black Donald of the Isles escapes from ? and joins English

1546 - Cardinal Beaton burned George Wishart at the stake for heresy, then thrown out his St Andrew castle window by Protestants, John Knox sentenced to slave ship.

1546 - Lady Jane Grey sent to live at court under the protection of Catherine Parr

1547 - Execution of the Earl of Surrey for high treason

1547 Jan 28 - Henry VIII died at Richmond, leaving crown to Edward, then sister Mary, Duchess of Suffolk's children.

Edward VI, 10, and uncle Earl of Hertford (made Duke of Somerset) assumed government, although Henry VIII decreed Council of Regency would be Edward's guardian.

Catherine married Thomas Seymour, Duke of Somerset's brother

Edward betrothed to Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, forbidden by bad relations between England and Scotland

1547 - Repeal of Six Articles

1547 - Henry II replaced his father Francis I as King of France at age 28

1548 Sept - Catherine Parr in child bed of fever at Sudeley Castle, Thomas Seymour took protection of Jane sending her father two thousand pounds

1548 - Mary Queen of Scots to France at age five to be educated and marry Dauphin, son of Henri II, leaving mother Mary of Guise as regent to rule Scotland in France's interests.

1549 - Thomas Seymour arrested for breaking into the king's chambers trying to have an audience with the king

1549 - Introduction of Protestant Doctrines

Execution of Seymour, Somerset's brother because he wanted to marry Elizabeth

1549 - John Knox released by petition from English government to build English Protestant party in Scotland, Catholic France was too strong and Knox went to England.

1549 - Publication of Edward VI's first prayer book, "The Book of Common Prayer" by Thomas Cranmer, a soft version designed to pacify Catholics by skating around controversial issues. Catholics were pleased, Protestants wanted stricter reforms.

Treason and heresy laws were appealed, making England a haven for continental heretics.

Unemployment high due to monasteries taken by crown, cheap metal new coins replaced old ones.

Treaty of Boulogne, peace between England and France, English troops to withdraw from Scotland

Mary De Guise (Catholic) took over Scotland Regency

John Dudley coerced Edward into wanting the crown and full power, was made Duke of Northumbria, virtually ruled England without a title, oversaw the Council's taking of church properties

1550 - Somerset usurped by Lord Warwick who became Duke of Northumberland

Somerset defeated Scottish forces at Pinkie

1551 - Publication of Fourty-two Articles by Crammer, basis of Anglican Protestantism, formally finished with Elizabeth's Fourty-Nine Articles.

1552 Sept - Somerset executed for unrest

1553 - Knox flees to continent, meets John Calvin in Geneva.

1553 - John Dudley convinces Edward on his deathbed from tuberculosis that Mary would restore Catholic properties which were making the crown very rich, and he knew Mary would punish him. Edward assigns Lady Jane Grey Queen, his cousin and one true friend and excludes Mary and Elizabeth as being bastards. Dudley convinces Jane's parents in May to agree to marriage between Jane and his son, Guildford Dudley even though she was betrothed to Edward, Earl of Hertford.

Henry VII and Elizabeth had Mary who married Charles Brandon Duke of Suffolk and had Frances who married Henry Grey Duke of Suffolk who had Jane Grey.

1553 May 21 or 25 - Jane married to Guilford Dudley at Durham House on the Strand in London, a the same ceremony her sister Katherine was married to Lord Herbert, son of the Earl of Pembroke, and John Dudley's daughter Katherine was married to Lord Hastings. Jane's younger sister, Mary Grey was betrothed to her cousin, Lord Arthur Grey.

1553 June - Dudley revealed his plans to Jane's parents, she was moved to Durham House. Dudley forces the "King's Device" pressuring Parliament to approve of the new heirs to the throne.

1553 July 6 - Edward VI dies with Frances Grey at his bedside to take the crown to Jane who was ill at Chelsea House Manor, thinking her mother in law was trying to poison her.

1553 - Mary Tudor retreats to Framlingham Suffolk and declares crown.

1553 July 9 - Jane learns of Edward's death, taken by barge with sister in law Mary Sidney to Syon House, entering Grand Hall from the water stairs where the Privy Council and John Dudley, now the President of the Council waited to declare her Queen despite her protests.

Jane's father, now Duke of Suffolk was to capture Mary but Jane kept him. John Dudley went instead and bungled the attempt. Jane declared Guilford would not be King, that she had been fooled.

1553 July 18 Tues - Council arranged secret meeting at Baynard's Castle and declared Dudley a traitor and Mary Queen

1553 July 19 - Council sent Grey advise he was to remove Jane from her title.

1553 Jul 20 - Dudley arrested at Cambridge while procuring supplies, Duke and Duchess of Suffolk left Jane and went to Sheen. Jane and belongings taken into custody by Gentleman Gaoler and placed in cell # 5 of Tower Green. Guilford imprisoned in the Beauchamp Tower.

1553 Jul 24 - Dudley brought to Tower of London, proclaims he was mislead, might he attend Mass.

1553 Aug 3 - Mary receives support from the masses and returns to London.

Mary repeals Protestant legislation of Edward VI, restores Catholic bishops. Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester and author of Six Articles is made Lord Chancellor.

1553 Aug 23 - Dudley beheaded

1553 Aug 29 - Mary dines with Jane in Tower green, the conversation was recorded.

1553 Nov 13 - Jane and Guildford were tried and found guilty and sentenced to death at Guildhall

1554 Feb 7 - Jane's supporter Thomas Wyatt entered London with a small band of protestors from Kent (angered by Mary's choice of a Spanish husband) but received no support and was arrested. Henry Grey tried to gather forces in the Midlands and was also arrested. Mary signed all death warrants to guarantee Spain a peaceful England.

1554 Feb 12 - Guilford was executed on Tower Hill at ten o'clock in the morning. At eleven, Lady Jane Grey was taken by the Lieutenant of the Tower, Sir Lord Brydges to the execution block within the tower where she recited the fifty first psalm and was executed.

Catholic bishops restored Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, author of the Six Articles who became Lord Chancellor

1554 July 25 - Marriage treaty between Mary Tudor and Philip of Spain, son of Charles V, proclaiming themselves King and Queen of England and Scotland. Philip was to have title but never any power.

Sir Thomas Carew, Duke of Suffolk and Sir Thomas Wyatt protest but rebellion was suppressed.

Elizabeth was imprisoned but released by intercession by Rome.

1554 - Knox became pastor of church of Protestant English refugees in Frankfurt, Germany

1555 - Persecution of Protestants: 300 people and Thomas Crammer, Archbishop of Canterbury burnt at the stake 1556.

1557 - England is drawn into Spanish war with France. England wins Battle of St Quentin with France

1558 Jan 7 - France loses Calais, captured by Duke of Guise. (England loses it? Philip coerced Mary into war with France)

1558 - Repeal of Mary's Catholic legislation, re-enactment of Henry's laws.

Prayer Book Revision

1558 - Philip returns to Spain when his father, Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire retires, Mary Tudor dies ten months later.

1558 - Mary Stuart married Francis II, Dauphin, King of France.

England in financial disarray, only hope was alliance with Philip of Spain who was hostile towards France.

1558 - Mary Tudor dies.

Mary Stuart claims title of Queen of Scotland, France, England

Elizabeth claims title of Queen of England and France

John Knox wrote "The First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women" about how women should not rule, let alone if they are single. He would not apologize. It could have been aimed at Mary Tudor, Mary Guise, Mary Stuart or Elizabeth.

1558 - Elizabeth becomes Queen of England

Elizabeth receives condescending offer of marriage from Philip of Spain, she declined

1559 - Treaty of Edinburgh between England, France and Scotland at La Cateau Cambresis. Which included:

Recognized Spanish control in Italy

Agreed to a marriage between Philip of Spain and Elizabeth, daughter of Henri II, King of France.

If Catholic France and Catholic Spain allied, Protestant England would be in trouble.

Mary Stuart and Francis II of France would never lay claim to England

Treaty signed by Henry II, King of France, (add here), Mary Stuart did not sign

1559 - John Knox returns to Scotland

1559 - Henri II of France dies accidentally in wedding tournament when splinter of a lance driven into his skull, Francis II becomes King of France. Mother, Catherine de Medici is only Queen Mother and enemies with Mary of Guise

1560 - Scotland made Knox leader of Protestant Parliament as minister of Edinburgh.

1560 - Mary of Guise died

1561 - Francis II dies of earache, crown goes to his brother Charles IX with Catherine de Medici as regent

Elizabeth promised Mary Stuart safe passage if Mary would sign Treaty of Edinburgh, Mary refused and sailed anyway. Elizabeth relented and sent safe passage which arrived after Mary's departure

Guises wanted her to marry Don Carlos, son of Philip, King of Spain, Philip not so sure, Catherine de Medici opposed the marriage.

1561 Aug 14 - Mary Stuart, 18, left Calais France for Scotland, arriving Aug 19 at Leith, arriving early with no one to greet her in heavy fog. Her horse ship captured by the English. Mary went to her palace in Holyrood.

Mary Stuart immediately involved with conflicts concerning John Knox and the Calvinists.

Protestant riot stopped by brother James, Earl of Murray/Moray when Mary attended mass. Orders were issued for all to follow own religion. Meeting between Mary and Knox accomplished nothing.

Her secretary was William Maitland of Lethington.

Mary helped crush Catholic riot led by Earl of Huntly and Sir John Gordon, fainted at their execution.

Davie Rizzio, Mary's Italian secretary, thought to be papal spy talks Mary into marrying Darnley.

1560's - English merchant John Hawkins makes three voyages to Spanish America, infuriating Philip of Spain, Hawkins attacked by Spanish fleets.

1562 - Elizabeth formed alliance with Huguenots against French King.

1563 - Thirty-nine Articles were adopted in England over the Fourty-two Articles by Cranmer

1563 - Huguenots and France made peace, Elizabeth abandoned hope of regaining Calais.

1565 July 29 - Mary Stuart marries her cousin Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley without waiting for papal approval. Protestants were furious, Philip and Elizabeth approved.

Margaret Tudor, Mary Stuart's grandmother married to James IV, Mary Stuart's grandfather, also married Douglas and had Lady Lennox who had Lord Darnley.

James leads rebellion against Mary Stuart but does not have backing of Elizabeth

Protestant James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell, loyal to Mary of Guise and Mary Stuart placed in Edinburgh prison for brawling, climbed down prison rock and escaped to France, finally pardoned to lead Mary Stuart's army sent after James who flees to England. Mary proves to be a better solider than Bothwell or Darnley, forgives James within the year.

1565 Dec - Darnley demands "Crown Matrimonial" allowing him crown power, Mary agrees but council refuses, Mary agrees with council when Darnley becomes nasty.

1566 - Conspiracy starts to do away with Rizzio by exiled Protestant Lords Lord Lindsay, Ruthven, Morton who convinced Darnley to kill Rizzio. Elizabeth was told by Cecil her Secretary of State, John Knox and James knew about it but said nothing.

1566 Mar 9 - Rizzio is stabbed to death (fifty six times) in front of Mary who was under guard

Mary escapes with Darnley to awaiting Bothwell, returned openly to Edinburgh following month, reinstating and forgiving James for knowing conspirators.

1566 June 19 - James VI was born, angering Elizabeth

Bothwell sent to Jedburgh to squelch rebellious Armstrongs and Eliots, wounded in battle, taken to his nearby Hermitage Castle and wife Lady Jean Gordon. Mary visited and became ill from horse fall, mended at Hermitage at Dunbar

1566 Dec 17 - James VI christened at Sterling Castle.

Divorce from Darnley was needed but a dilemma, James VI could be declared illegitimate, was marriage legal after all?

1566 Christmas - Darnley to father's in Glasgow with measles, Mary and son to Holyrood

1567 Feb - Mary brought Darnley back to the Robert Balfour, Canon of Holyrood's small home to recover in Kirk 'o Field, Mary goes back and forth daily

1567 Feb 9 Sunday - Bothwell, Argyll and Huntly visit Darnley to play dice, Mary went to wedding party at Holyrood. 2 am Darnley's strangled body found at his house destroyed in mysterious explosion. Darnley buried next to Rizzio. Bothwell blamed later

1567 Apr - Under pressure, Mary brings Bothwell to trial, acquitted. Bothwell divorces Lady Jean.

1567 May 15 - Mary marries James Hepburn, fourth Earl of Bothwell, Lord High Admiral of Scotland, infuriating the Catholics.

Protestant army led by James V meets Mary's forces at Carbury Hill, forces Mary to give up throne to her infant son James VI aka James I. James V becomes Regent. Mary abdicated to Lochleven Castle under the care of Lady Douglas, James V's mother. Bothwell escapes but is captured and turns over the "Casket Letters" probably written by an Anna Trondsson, brief wife of Bothwell's.

1567 Jul - Mary signs abdication papers, James VI crowned as King of Scotland at Sterling Castle

1568 Spring - Mary escapes from Lochleven Castle with help from George Douglas, goes to Niddrie Castle with Lord Seaton's help. Bothwell flees to Norway where Anna Trondsson's brother jailed him for the rest of his life, dying raving mad.

1568 - Spanish fleet in English Channel driven to port by Huguenot pirates, Elizabeth seized gold on board on loan to Philip for Flanders, Philip bans English property in Netherlands, Elizabeth seizes Spanish property in Netherlands ending important Netherland trading until 1573.

1568 May 13 - Mary is defeated by at Langside by James, she flees to England for protection from Elizabeth and placed into confinement.

1568 Oct - Commission finds Mary not innocent enough to attend court in England.

Mary's supporters, "The Queen's Lords" seize Edinburgh Castle, recaptured by Morton who was executed for Darnley's murder, appointed by Mary's son King as Duke of Lennox and High Chamberlain of Scotland. Lennox wanted James VI to become Catholic with France and Scotland's help, but was thwarted by Scottish lords who kidnapped James VI at the Raid of Ruthven, Lennox fled to France. James VI escapes and proclaims himself King at Edinburgh.

1569 - Duke of Norfolk, Thomas Howard, plots with Percy, Earl of Northumbria, Neville, Earl of Westmorland, Roberto di Ridolfi banker from Italy, and de Spes to aid king of Spain in attack on Elizabeth and to marry Mary but was exposed and executed as traitor. Norfolk's sentence was read out loud in court by his life long friend, Earl of Shrewsbury. Westmorland and Northumbria flee to Scotland.

1570 - James IV assassinated

1570 - Elizabeth at 38 negotiated marriage to Duke of Anjou 18, later Henry III, brother to Charles XI, but he would not become Protestant, but relations between England and France improved.

1572 - Treaty of Blois, England and France agreed to assist each other if attacked.

1572 - John Knox dies, Andrew Melville takes over

1572 Aug 24 Saint Bartholomew's Day - hundreds of Huguenots murdered. Catherine de Medici afraid Huguenot leader Admiral Coligny would influence Charles to assist Netherland rebels, causing war between Spain and France, plotted to kill Coligny. Huguenots gathered in Paris to celebrate wedding between Henry Navarre, Huguenot prince and Charles' sister, Marguerite. Catherine convinced Charles to slaughter seven to eight thousand of them.

1576 - Earl of Shrewsbury assigned Mary Stuart's jailor.

1577 - Elizabeth allies with Netherlands, helps in revolt against Spain. Holland and Belgium under Duke of Burgundy since middle ages now in control of Spanish and heavy taxes from Philip.

1582 - Oct: Pope Gregory chopped off 10 days of the calendar; October 4th was followed by October 15th. This was done to keep pace with the seasons

1583 - Earl of Arundel executed for communicating with Mary

1585 - Conspiracy against Elizabeth discovered by Secretary of State Walsingham, Savage, Ballard and Babington are taken to the Tower in Aug and executed Sept 17

1586 - Sir Francis Drake goes to the West Indies

1586 Oct - Mary tried at Fotheringay Castle, served as her own lawyer, convicted on a forged letter. Elizabeth put off signing the warrant until Feb

1587 Feb 8 - Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots was executed 8 am at Fotheringay Castle, Northamptonshire

1558 - Construction of the English war fleet and defeat of the Spanish Armada in the English Channel

1589 - James V remained Protestant and married Protestant Princess Anne of Denmark

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