1400 - Richard's supporters revolted against Henry IV, Owain Glyndwr's revolt in Wales lasted until 1408.

1401 - House of Commons expanded power while Parliament was busy funding the fighting of rebellions, securing recognition of freedom of debate and freedom from arrest for dissenting opinions. John Wycliffe's Lollardy, the Protestant movement during Edward III inspired the first anti-heresy statute, De Heritico Comburendo, became law.

1401 - Henry V, age 14, fought Owain Glyndwr /Owan Glendower in Wales (won?)

1402 - Henry Bolingbroke married Joan of Navarre (bad move, she practiced necromancy)

1403 - Henry V, age 16, commanded his father, Henry IV's forces at the Battle of Shrewsbury

1404 - Owain Glyndwr declared himself King of Wales at Machynlleth, allied by Scots and French but could not capture England

1405 - Richard Scrope, Archbishop of York, proclaimed his opposition to Henry's Lancastrian claim, executed with Thomas Mawbray for treason. Henry developed leprosy and epilepsy, convincing population he was being punished for executing an archbishop.

1406 - Robert II died, James I still held prisoner. McDonalds, Douglas and MacLean families fought over Scotland

James I of Scotland captured by ?

1406 - James I became King of Scotland

1411 - Henry V took over control from dying father

1413 - Henry IV died in the Jerusalem Chamber of Westminster Abbey

1413 - Henry V crowned King of England

Continued persecution of the Lollards

1413 - Henry V won a great deal of France. The Dauphin of France asked for Scottish help and overtook France. Dauphine made Buchan head of French armies and gave Duchy of Touraine to Douglas.

1415 - Henry V proposed to Catherine, demanding the old Plantagenet lands of Normandy and Anjou as his dowry. Charles VI refused and Henry declared war, another chapter of 100 year war. Henry V defeated French at Battle of Agincourt in October

1419 - Henry V captured Normandy, Picardy and much of the Capetian stronghold of the Ile-de-France

1419 - Joan of Navarre convicted of witchcraft

1420 - Treaty of Troyes, defeated King Charles IV handed French throne to Henry V, now son-in-law.

1420 Dec 6 - Henry V married Catherine, daughter of the French King Charles VI, forcing Charles to declare Henry heir to French throne

1420 June - Henry VI born while Henry V on another French campaign

1422 - Henry V died ill, cursing Scots, never saw his son

Henry VI became King of England at nine months old with his uncle, Duke of Gloucester as regent of England and his uncle Duke of Bedford as regent of France. Last king of Lancaster. Crowned in 1429, Nov 6 at Westminster Abbey.

1424 - James I married Joan, cousin of Henri VI and returned to Scotland, executed highlands chiefs and smashed rebellions

1428 - James renewed relations with France, sent troops to fight with Charles VII and Joan of Arc.

Council of Constance orders Wiclif's body at Lutterworth dug up and burnt

1429 - Dauphin, crowned Charles VII at Reims, was rescued by Joan of Arc supported by Henry VI

1431 - English burned Joan of Arc at the stake at Rouen

1431 - Dec 5 at Notre Dame, Henry VI was crowned King of France with Richard of York as regent

1437 - James killed by an uncle and a cousin, James II was only six, became King of Scotland. Regency continues murders and destruction of Douglas estates.

1445 - Henry VI married Margaret of Anjou, disliked in England

1448 - Charles VII completed his conquest of Normandy

1449 - Henry VI lost Brittany

1450 - Henry VI lost Normandy

1450 - James II took command, killed young Earl of Douglas at dinner

1452 - James destroyed remaining Douglas rule at Battle of Arkinholm, other Earls made peace with James.

1452 - Richard III Crookback born

1453 - Henry VI lost Gascony, end of 100 year war. Henry VI possessed only French soil Calais, France

1453 - Henry VI became mentally ill, Richard Duke of York (Richard Neville, Duke of Warwick?) became his protector. When Henry recovered, his wife Margaret alienated Richard who returned in 1455 and defeated Queen's forces at St Albans, starting the War of the Roses.

1460 - James accidentally killed by one of his guns

1460 - James III became King of Scotland

1460 - Richard captured Henry VI, forcing Henry to acknowledge Richard as heir to throne. Henry escapes

So England supports Richard's son, Edward IV, 19 years old, house of York

Richard defeated by Catherine (?) and fell at Wakefield

1461 March - Henry VI joins Lancaster forces and attacks Richard at Towton York, but is defeated.

Edward IV defeats Lancasters at Mortimer's Cross (same as Towton?) but lost at St Albans and lost Henry (?)

London refuses Margaret, Henry's wife and Richard's son, Edward IV by Cecily Neville, was crowned king.

Henry and Margaret exiled to Scotland.

Edward IV's brother, Richard, 11th child of Richard Duke of York & Cecily, became third Duke of Gloucester

1464 - Edward IV married Elizabeth Woodville, widow of Sir John Grey of Lancaster, against counselors advice. Parliament declares them to be traitors.

1465 - Henry VI and Margaret captured, sent to Tower of London until 1470.

Henry's sister Margaret marries Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, master of the Netherlands

Warwick returns to Lancaster with support of Louis XI of King of France

1470 - Earl of Orkney traded James of Scotland the Northern Isles for Fife lands

1470 - Power returned briefly to Henry VI

1471 May 20 - Edward, Prince of Wales, Henry VI's son defeated Margaret but was killed after victorious battle Tewkesbury. Henry VI was returned to the Tower and murdered the next day.

Warwick killed at the Battle of Barnet

Only other crown claimant was Henry, Earl of Richmond, son of John Gaunt and Katherine Swynford

1472 - James II III? of Scotland married Margaret, daughter of Denmark's or Norway's Christian I and gained Shetland and Orkney from Norwegians as dowry. Imprisons brothers Albany and Mar. Albany escapes to London. Dies in a tournament in France.

1475 - Edward IV invades France, takes French crown, extorts treaty and large sums from Louis XI for his lack of support

1477 - Charles was killed leaving Edward without allies

1478 - Edward IV has brother George Clarendon murdered on charge of treason.

1483 April - Edward IV dies suddenly, unknown reason, Edward V becomes king at 12 or 13 with his uncle Richard III as guardian.

His uncle, Richard of Gloucester (Richard III the Crookback) imprisoned Edward V and his brother Richard in the Tower, declared illegitimate based on Edward's marriage to Elizabeth was bigamous. Elizabeth escaped to a sanctuary in Westminster. Richard of Gloucester declares himself king. The boys were never seen from again. See 1674.

1483 July 6 - Richard crowned Richard III. Last king of the Plantagenet dynasty (ruled since 1154), last English king to die in the battlefield, last king of medieval times

Richard crushed rebellion led by Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham to place Henry Tudor as king.

Buckingham beheaded then?

Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV declared heiress to the throne.

(Richard considered responsible for deaths of Henry VI and his sons Edward and Clarence)

1485 Aug 22 - Edward, Earl of Richmond, supporter of Henry Tudor, landed at Millford Haven and defeated Richard at Bosworth field where Richard died, ending the last War of the Roses. The crown of England was found after battle on a bush and passed to Henry VII

1485 - Henry Tudor, Henry VII crowned king. First Tudor king. Married Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of Edward IV, uniting the houses of Lancaster and York. Son of John of Gaunt and Catherine of Sywnford.

1486 - Henry VII married Elizabeth of York, combining York and Lancaster families

Lambert Simnel posed as the Earl of Warwick, but was defeated, eventually pardoned and forced to work in the king's kitchen.

Perkin Warbeck posed as Richard of York, Edward V's younger brother who died in the Tower of London, Henry had him imprisoned and executed.

Henry created Committee of the Privy Council, as an executive advisory board, a preliminary version of the modern cabinet

Henry established the Court of the Star Chamber to increase royal involvement in civil and criminal cases.

Henry imposed forced loans and grants on the nobility instead of the revenue tax disbursement from Parliament. Henry was noted for being able to bypass Parliament easily.

Law and trade replace feudal obligations

1488 - James III dies, stabbed to death by a supposed priest after falling off his horse in battle with rebels Archibald Douglas and Lord Home and aided by the Chief of Clan Campbell, the first Earl of Argyll.

1488 - Mother Shipton is born Knaresborough, Yorkshire.

1488 - James IV fourteen years old, became King of Scotland, takes control with Earl of Bothwell and Douglas very strong. James IV wore chain entire life for penance. James started the great Scottish fleet with the "Great Michael"

1497 - Henry VII sent John and Sebastian Cabot to explore America

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